The magazine's December issue names Roberts, along with several other prominent black women, including author and inspirational speaker Iyanla Vanzant, first lady Michelle Obama, Sybrina Fulton - the mother of slain Florida teen Trayvon Martin - Jamaican Prime Minister Portia Simpson-Miller and Malawi's President Joyce Banda.
U.S. Olympic gold medal-winning gymnast Gabrielle Douglas is on the list, and she graces the cover of next month's issue.
Roberts, who turns 52 years old Friday, is on medical leave from "GMA." She received a bone marrow transplant in September to treat MDS, a rare blood disorder.
Many people have become more aware about MDS since Roberts' diagnosis, and she has urged people to register to become bone marrow donors.
Roberts received donor stem cells from her sister, Sally-Ann Roberts.Read More »from Robin Roberts on Essence Magazine's Women of the Year List