LONDON (Reuters) - Here is a look at who has won the Nobel prizes for 2013:
* Physiology or Medicine: James E. Rothman (United States)
Randy W. Schekman (United States)
Thomas C. Suedhof (Germany,
- For - plotting how cells transfer vital materials such as
hormones and brain chemicals to other cells, giving
insight into diseases such as Alzheimer's, autism
* Physics: Francois Englert (Belgium)
Peter W. Higgs (United Kingdom)
- For - predicting the existence of the Higgs boson particle
that explains how elementary matter attained the
mass to form stars and planets.
* Chemistry: Martin Karplus (United States,
Michael Levitt (United States,
Arieh Warshel (United States,
- For - laying the foundations for development of computers
to understand complex chemical processes from the
purification of exhaust fumes to photosynthesis
which helps in complex processes such as the
development of drugs.
* Literature: Alice Munro (Canada)
- For - being a master of the contemporary short story.
Munro is acclaimed for her finely tuned
storytelling, which is characterized by clarity and
psychological realism. Some critics consider her a
* Peace: Organization for the Prohibition
of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
- For - its extensive efforts to
eliminate chemical weapons.
(Reporting by David Cutler, London Editorial Reference Unit)
- United States