By Alexandra Ulmer
SANTIAGO (Reuters) - When Michelle Bachelet became Chile's health minister under President Ricardo Lagos in 2000, he assigned her a daunting task: end the long lines at overwhelmed primary health care centers within three months.
Bachelet struggled to meet the deadline. Yet, when Lagos visited a medical center to survey the situation, a woman whisked him aside to praise Bachelet and beg him to keep her in his cabinet.
"I can't remember ever being told during my presidency not to get rid of a minister," a chuckling Lagos, who governed from 2000 to 2006, told Reuters in an interview. "Within a short period of time, Bachelet managed to forge a relationship with people. She's seen by some as the mother of all Chileans."
The pediatrician-turned-politician's efforts to improve health care and her warm style paved the way for her to succeed Lagos in office as Chile's first female president from 2006 to 2010.
That charisma, coupled with more ambitious policies to bridge steep economic inequality, helped the 62-year-old center-left politician win a second term in the La Moneda palace.
She captured roughly 62 percent of the vote on Sunday, the highest proportion of votes any presidential candidate has won since Chile returned to holding democratic elections in 1989.
A victim of torture under the dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet and a single mother of three, Bachelet was one of conservative Chile's most unusual presidents since its return to democracy in 1990.
She is beloved by many lower and middle-class women disenchanted with the political elite in Chile, which enjoys stability and growth but also has the worst income inequality of the 34 counties in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Critics say her popularity is too anchored in her personality, and many leftists, disillusioned with her moderate record of reform while in power the first time, are skeptical of her fresh promises.
Bachelet has pledged a reform blitz that includes raising corporate taxes to fund an education overhaul, changing the Pinochet-era constitution and legalizing abortion in some circumstances.
Many who feel marginalized from what some have called Latin America's shining economic success story are pinning their hopes on her.
Far from the gleaming skyscrapers and polished parks of affluent eastern Santiago, euphoric supporters in the low-income neighborhood of Cerrillos greeted Bachelet last month.
They fervently waved flags emblazoned with a big, simple 'M' as Bachelet rode in to the tune of her jingle 'Chile de todos,' or 'Chile for all,' blasting out from speakers.
"She's a fighter. It's what I value most," said Josefina Osorio, a 32-year old law student, shouting above the cheers. "She's back with new ideas."
Barred constitutionally from running for re-election at the end of her first term, Bachelet moved to New York to head U.N. Women, an agency aimed at improving the lives of women and girls.
Displaying her common touch, Bachelet said in an interview that one of the things she most enjoyed about living away from Chile was the freedom to go food shopping in Bermuda shorts. During the same program she danced with a popular television host to the rhythm of cumbia, a Colombian music genre popular throughout Latin America.
"She's got charisma. There's something about her ... She is the sum of her history," said political scientist Robert Funk. "(Chileans) don't just see her, they don't just see her government, they know her story, they see a single mother, they see the fact that she was arrested and tortured, and the fact that she's moved on and shows no rancor."
TORTURE, EXILE, MEDICINE
Some of her appeal stems from her life story.
As a young leftist, Bachelet's life was deeply marked by the coup that overthrew President Salvador Allende in 1973 and ushered in the brutal 17-year Pinochet rule.
Bachelet's father, an air force general loyal to Allende, was arrested the day of the coup and tortured by Pinochet's agents. He died in prison in 1974.
The following year, two secret police officers burst into the flat where Bachelet and her mother lived. The women were taken blindfolded to Villa Grimaldi, an infamous military-run center on the outskirts of Santiago where they too were tortured.
Once freed, she and her mother fled to Australia and later on to what was then East Germany. She returned to Chile in 1979.
In an astounding twist, Matthei is also the daughter of an air force general - but one who went on to be part of the Pinochet junta.
The two generals became very close in the years before the coup when they were neighbors on an air force base in northern Chile. Their daughters rode bikes and played together in the street, though they are not friends. Bachelet said she spontaneously called former general Fernando Matthei "uncle," a common term of endearment in Chile, when she saw him again recently.
Still, Bachelet's affable nature irks some people.
"Everything she says is ambiguous. Sure, we all want more justice, more love but ..." said David Altman, a political scientist at the Universidad Catolica. "She doesn't gamble when you have to gamble. She creates a commission for anything."
Critics point to her government's slow response to a devastating 8.8-magnitude earthquake that hit at the very end of her first term in 2010. The navy's catastrophe-alert system failed to warn of the ensuing tsunami and hundreds of people who survived the quake were killed by massive waves.
Many in Chile also question why Bachelet did not implement the policies she is now championing.
Former presidential candidate Marco Enriquez-Ominami, a left-leaning economist and filmmaker who wooed some of the youth vote away from Bachelet to come in third in November's first-round election, says she "copied" his ideas, and called on Chileans to "vote for the original."
Another weak point is that Bachelet is not close with most political parties due to her time in exile and the fact that she was never a member of Congress, analysts say.
That could prove tricky as deft management of a notoriously challenging Congress will be crucial to ensure passage of her flagship reforms.
Expectations are sky-high.
"I want changes for the people, for young students, more opportunities for those of us who are lower-middle class," said Maximiliano Valdes, a 25-year-old electrician who said he voted for Bachelet in the first and second round of voting.
"The changes she's promised can be done."
(Reporting and writing by Alexandra Ulmer; Additional reporting by Rosalba O'brien; Editing by Kieran Murray and Christopher Wilson)
- Politics & Government
- Michelle Bachelet
- Augusto Pinochet