By Shereen Lehman (Reuters Health) - Living with a smoker can be like breathing the air in the world’s most polluted cities, according to a new study from Scotland. “The message is pretty simple really - smoking in your home leads to really poor air quality and results in concentrations of fine particles, that you can’t see, that would cause real concern to us if they were found outside,” said lead author Sean Semple, of the Scottish Center for Indoor Air at the University of Aberdeen. Tiny particles 2.5 microns in diameter or smaller, known as PM2.5, can penetrate deep into the lungs and even enter the blood. They’ve been linked to heart disease, strokes and cancer. “Making your home smoke-free is key to reducing your exposure to PM2.5; for non-smokers who live with a smoker the impact of implementing smoke-free house rules would reduce their daily intake of PM2.5 by 70 percent or more,” Semple told Reuters Health in an email. Such tiny particles typically result from combustion. Outdoors, the primary sources are vehicle exhaust, power plants and wildfires. Indoors, wood-burning or coal-burning stoves, gas cooking and heating fires and tobacco smoke are the most common sources of PM2.5 in the air. For outdoor air, the World Health Organization says the safe exposure limit for PM2.5 particles is an average of 25 micrograms, or 25 millionths of a gram, per cubic meter of air over a 24-hour period, or average annual levels of 10 micrograms per cubic meter. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sets the 24-hour limit at an average of 12 micrograms. Semple and his colleagues wanted to bring together two scientific communities: those involved in tobacco control work and those interested in outdoor air pollution and health. “We think there is a lot that each can learn from the other,” he said. Many studies have examined outdoor air pollution or indoor air quality in workplaces. But home is where most people spend the majority of their time, particularly small children and homebound elderly people, the researchers write. By comparing indoor air pollution in the homes of smokers and non-smokers, then comparing that to the most polluted cities, they hoped to illustrate the perils of indoor tobacco smoke over a lifetime. The study team looked at data from four separate studies that measured PM2.5 levels in 93 Scottish homes where people smoked and 17 homes that were smoke free. On average, PM2.5 levels in smokers' homes were around 31 micrograms per cubic meter – 10 times greater than the average of 3 micrograms in non-smoking homes. There was a wide range of smoke concentrations in the smokers’ homes, however, and in one quarter of them, the 24-hour averages were 111 micrograms. Semple pointed out, “A considerable proportion of smokers’ homes had air pollution levels that were the same or higher than the annual average PM2.5 concentration measured in Beijing,” a heavily polluted city. The study team estimates that over a lifetime, a non-smoker living with a smoker will inhale about 6 grams more particulate matter than a non-smoker living in a smoke-free home. Semple said that isn’t much, but this amount is likely to "have a substantial effect on the risk of developing diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.” Semple said smokers often express the view that outdoor traffic pollution is a bigger problem than second-hand smoke pollution in the home. “What this work shows is that, for most people living outside of major heavily polluted mega-cities like Beijing or Delhi, outdoor air pollution is much, much lower than what is measured inside homes where someone smokes,” he said. “We have a lot of data and it’s an established fact how bad secondhand smoke is,” said Lucy Popova, from the Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education at the University of California, San Francisco. “There’s no safe level of exposure to it.” “Smoke-free rules help not only by reducing the particulate matters for non-smokers but it actually helps smokers to quit too,” said Popova, who was not involved in the Scottish study. “Research shows when you have smoke-free rules in your home, that motivates smokers to make more cessation attempts and decrease the number of cigarettes that they smoke.” SOURCE: http://bit.ly/1wN6uRL Tobacco Control, online October 20, 2014.
Our goal is to create a safe and engaging place for users to connect over interests and passions. In order to improve our community experience, we are temporarily suspending article commenting
- The Daily Beast
YouTubeThe last text Gabby Petito sent before she went missing while road-tripping across the U.S. with her fiancé set off alarm bells for her mother, who became fearful for the 22-year-old’s safety after receiving the “odd” message.That’s according to a newly-unsealed search warrant giving North Port, Florida, police permission to search a hard drive investigators found in Petito’s white van, which she and Brian Laundrie, 23, had been using to tour the country’s national parks.“The text message
Search warrant for Brian Laundrie: Gabby Petito's mom says conversations and texts with her appeared to show 'more and more tension' between couple
The tenor of some messages, and then a lack of communication from Petito is what led her mother to reach out to authorities, according to the warrant.
A police note was found on Brian Laundrie's car after he disappeared following a hike into a Florida nature preserve, his family says
Brian Laundrie's family said they picked up the Ford Mustang from the Carlton Reserve in Florida when he didn't come home.
- E! News
Instead of dancing the night away at an after-party for the 2021 Emmys, Mandy Moore celebrated ending her awards night in the best way possible: by eating pizza in her pantry.
- Harper's Bazaar
Issa Rae at the Emmys. Megan Fox at the VMAs. Zoë Kravitz and Kendall Jenner at the Met Gala. Is this what a post-Victoria's Secret world looks like?
Close-ups of footage said to show Gabby Petito's van near where a body was found appear to show the rear door closing
A YouTubing family said it caught footage of Petito's van unoccupied. Zoomed in, the footage suggests the rear door closed as the family approached.
- Good Housekeeping
We did not expect this! 🙌
- The Daily Beast
Michael M Santiago/GettyImagesProsecutors have discovered a tranche of evidence in the basement of a co-conspirator in the Trump Organization tax fraud case, a defense lawyer for indicted chief financial officer Allen Weisselberg revealed in court on Monday, with the attorney also signaling that more shoes are yet to drop in New York’s ongoing investigation.“We have strong reason to believe there could be other indictments coming,” Weisselberg’s lawyer, Bryan C. Skarlatos, said in Manhattan crim
- In The Know by Yahoo
Man's bone-chilling demonstration casts doubt on the safety of hotel rooms: 'Another thing to be paranoid about'
If you aren't already inspecting your hotel room or Airbnb before settling in, you might want to start.
- ProFootball Talk on NBC Sports
The 49ers saw three of their running backs get hurt in Sunday’s win over the Eagles, so they are looking at some potential additions to the roster this week. According to multiple reports, the team is bringing in Duke Johnson, Lamar Miller, and T.J. Yeldon. Johnson was released off of the Jaguars’ practice squad last [more]
- Yahoo Movies
Sultry toon is being transformed from damsel in distress to private investigator at Disneyland's Roger Rabbit ride. "Disney does not understand the concept of Jessica Rabbit," grouses one fan.
Carole Middleton's bridal gown got a "second lease of life," says her new daughter-in-law
- Washington Examiner
Mixed martial arts rising star "Suga" Sean O'Malley commented critically on transgender fighter Alana McLaughlin's victories over female fighters.
Her style is truly unmatched.
- Kansas City Star
“Glad I didn’t find them, I would have called the crime scene investigation.”
- Charlotte Observer
After impressing Hornets coaches at NBA Summer League in Las Vegas, they signed him to the team Monday.
- Yahoo Life
Jordyn Woods is a ‘dream girl’ in stunning draped crystal dress: ‘All of your dreams shall be furfillleeeeeed’
Jordyn Woods is entering her 24th year in style!
- Entertainment Weekly
Dancing With the Stars recap: See who earned the lowest score by doing something completely different
Jojo Siwa danced last with a female partner, a show first.
- Business Insider
Nancy Pelosi and Chuck Schumer announced they would attach a debt-ceiling suspension to a government-funding bill, daring the GOP. McConnell answered.
It actually has nothing to do with the British royal family