Alisson, Jan Oblak and Ederson are among the nominees for the inaugural Trophee Yachine, a new goalkeeper award introduced by France Football, organisers of the Ballon d'Or.
Tottenham's Hugo Lloris, Barcelona's Marc-Andre ter Stegen and Manuel Neuer of Bayern Munich are also among the contenders.
Despite the creation of this award, nominees remain eligible for the main Ballon d'Or prize, with Lloris, Alisson and Ter Stegen on that shortlist.
Atletico Madrid 'keeper Oblak is one of two Slovenia internationals to be nominated along with Inter's Samir Handanovic.
Wojciech Szczesny of Serie A champions Juventus, Chelsea goalkeeper Kepa and Cameroon international Andre Onana, who helped Ajax reach the Champions League semi-finals, complete the shortlist.
France Football confirmed the introduction of the new award last month. It is named after former goalkeeper Lev Yashin, who played for the Soviet Union between 1954 and 1967, and is the only goalkeeper to have won the Ballon d’Or, in 1963.
This year's Ballon d’Or will be the 64th in the history of the prestigious award, which was first given to Sir Stanley Matthews in 1956.
The Ballon d'Or also served as the FIFA Player of the Year award from 2010 to 2015 but was then replaced by the governing body's The Best awards in 2016.
Liverpool goalkeeper Alisson was the winner of the FIFA Best Goalkeeper award last month, ahead of Ederson and Ter Stegen.
In 2018, the Women's Ballon d'Or was awarded for the first time along with the Kopa Trophy, awarded to the best performing player under the age of 21.
Real Madrid midfielder Luka Modric won the Ballon d'Or last year, the first player outside of star duo Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo to win the award since Kaka in 2007.
Paris Saint-Germain forward Kylian Mbappe won the inaugural Kopa Trophy while Lyon striker Ada Hegerberg won the first Women's Ballon d'Or.
The winners of all four awards will be announced at the Ballon d'Or ceremony at the Theatre du Chatelet in Paris on Monday, December 2.
Full list of nominees:
- Alisson (Liverpool/Brazil)
- Manuel Neuer (Bayern Munich/Germany)
- Ederson (Manchester City/Brazil)
- Andre Onana (Ajax/Cameroon)
- Wojciech Szczesny (Juventus/Poland)
- Jan Oblak (Atletico Madrid/Slovenia)
- Kepa Arrizabalaga (Chelsea/Spain)
- Samir Handanovic (Inter Milan/Slovenia)
- Hugo Lloris (Tottenham/France)
- Marc-Andre ter Stegen (Barcelona/Germany)