The Senate voted 52-48, with Democrats unified in opposing Barrett's confirmation, which creates a 6-3 conservative majority on the high court. One Republican, Susan Collins, voted against the confirmation.
The ceremony planned at the White House comes a month after a similar event was linked to a COVID-19 outbreak that preceded Trump's own infection. Barrett will succeed liberal Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, who died last month.
At the ceremony, conservative Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas will administer one of the two oaths of office that justices have to take, according to a White House official.
Chief Justice John Roberts will administer the separate judicial oath at the court on Tuesday, the court said in a statement.
Trump pressed the Senate to confirm Barrett, 48, to the lifetime post before the Nov. 3 election, which would create a 6-3 conservative majority on the top U.S. judicial body.
Senate Minority Chuck Schumer said the Republican majority was "lighting its credibility on fire" by proceeding with the vote so close to the election after blocking Democratic President Barack Obama's election-year nominee in 2016.
Republican Majority Leader Mitch McConnell defended Barrett's nomination. "You can't win them all, and elections have consequences," McConnell said.
No nominee to the Supreme Court had ever been confirmed by the Senate this close to a presidential election. Trump has been touting the appointment at campaign rallies to the cheers of his supporters.
Trump has said he expects the court to decide the outcome of the election between him and Democrat Joe Biden and wants Barrett to participate on any election-related cases that go before the justices.
Barrett, a federal appeals court judge, is Trump's third selection for the court, enabling him to remake it in dramatic fashion as part of his success in moving the broader federal judiciary to the right since taking office in 2017.
- On this vote, the yeas are 52, the nays are 48. The nomination of Amy Coney Barrett of Indiana to be an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States is confirmed!
CHUCK SCHUMER: And I want to be very clear with my Republican colleagues. You may win this vote. And Amy Coney Barrett may become the next Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. But you will never, never get your credibility back. You will give an already-divided and angry nation a fresh outrage and open a wound in this chamber that will take a very long time to heal.
You walk a perilous road. I know that you think that this will eventually blow over. But you're wrong. The American people will never forget this blatant act of bad faith.
MITCH MCCONNELL: You know, you can't win them all. And elections have consequences. And what this administration and this Republican Senate has done is exercise the power that was given to us by the American people in a manner that is entirely within the rules of the Senate and the Constitution of the United States. That's their problem. They don't they don't like the outcome. Well, the reason this outcome came about is because we had a series of successful elections.