Why eat anti-inflammatory foods?
Inflammation is the body's response to injury and disease -- like when you have swelling and redness around a wound or twisted joint, or fever while your immune system battles an illness. In the short run, inflammation can be helpful. However, chronic inflammation has been linked to a range of conditions, and some evidence indicates lifestyle -- including what we eat -- may contribute to inflammation. "The role of chronic inflammation in various diseases -- obesity, Type 2 diabetes, arthritis, certain cancers -- is fairly well-accepted in the scientific community," says Whitney Linsenmeyer, an assistant professor of nutrition at Saint Louis University and spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. "Naturally, people are looking towards dietary changes to reduce inflammation and promote overall health and immunity."
Don't exclude whole groups of foods -- or limit yourself to just a few.
Some fad diets may claim to be anti-inflammatory. But experts say eating patterns with the most science behind them, like the Mediterranean diet and the DASH diet (the acronym stands for dietary approaches to stop hypertension), are your top choices for an anti-inflammatory diet. They include a broad range of proven-healthy foods you probably have been told to eat since you were young, which research indicates are also anti-inflammatory foods. (Dr. Weil's Anti-Inflammatory Diet, based on the Mediterranean diet, with a few added elements like anti-inflammatory green tea, is also OK -- but expert panelists convened by U.S. News didn't rank the diet nearly as highly as the Mediterranean or DASH diets.) Here are some anti-inflammatory foods -- as well as some foods that may contribute to inflammation:
Antioxidant-infused fruits and vegetables
Foods generally considered anti-inflammatory have been proven to be healthy -- for any number of reasons. Case in point: fruits and veggies. We know from reams of research that they're good for us, even if it's still not clear to what extent anti-inflammatory properties may deserve credit. To hedge your bets, choose colorful fruits and veggies that are high in antioxidants:
-- For flavonols, try broccoli, kale and berries.
-- For beta carotene, consider red and orange peppers.
-- Get your vitamin C from citrus fruits and winter squash.
The bottom line: It's hard to go wrong with fruits or veggies, including tomatoes, which are sometimes cut from so-called anti-inflammatory diets despite being rich in antioxidants, and avocados, a great plant-based anti-inflammatory source of fat.
In addition to lots of fruits and vegetables, diets considered to be anti-inflammatory are usually rich in whole grains, such as wheat, oats and quinoa, Linsenmeyer notes. These and other whole grains like brown rice and barley are a great source of fiber, as are fruits and vegetables -- especially raspberries, apples, peas and broccoli. The dietary inflammatory index, a review of research on foods that are anti-inflammatory and those that seem to promote inflammation, puts fiber squarely in the first camp.
Beans are another fiber-rich food firmly in the category of lean proteins. Dietary experts like Tamara Randall, a registered dietitian nutritionist and instructor of nutrition at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, say these should be considered as part of a healthy anti-inflammatory diet. Black, kidney, pinto and other beans are a great complement to any diet.
Omega-3-packed fatty fish like salmon
Omega-3 fatty acids not only battle inflammation, they're also good for brain health. Foods high in omega-3 include fish, nuts (especially walnuts) and plant oils like flaxseed oil. However, the two most beneficial forms of omega-3 -- eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) -- come mainly from fish. The best sources for omega-3s are fatty seafoods, which include salmon, albacore tuna and shellfish. Experts generally recommend having fish twice per week, or around 200 to 500 milligrams of EPA or DHA total. Talk with a doctor about whether supplementation is recommended if you don't eat fish.
Walnuts and other nuts
Another food that's anti-inflammatory and high in a different form of omega-3 fatty acids (called alpha-linolenic acid or ALA) is walnuts. In fact, just a small handful, or one ounce, of English walnuts contains more than 2 1/2 grams of ALA. While nuts in general are a healthful feature of anti-inflammatory diets like the Mediterranean diet, walnuts lead the pack in omega-3 content. Researchers studying the effects of eating walnuts "have found they lower C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and arthritis," notes the Arthritis Foundation, adding that studies suggest monounsaturated fats in an almond-rich diet also lower some markers of inflammation, including CRP.
Featured in the traditional Mediterranean diet, olive oil is a source of healthy fat that's also anti-inflammatory, Randall notes. Alternatively, a person wishing to eat an anti-inflammatory diet may sparingly use safflower or sunflower oil as well, she suggests. Use oils in moderation, like a tablespoon for cooking or as dressing for a salad. Flaxseed oil, which contains 7 grams of ALA per tablespoon, is another great anti-inflammatory option.
Herbs and spices
In addition to keeping dishes flavorful, herbs and spices are also considered part of a dynamic anti-inflammatory diet. Linsenmeyer especially recommends turmeric and ginger, which many studies find to be anti-inflammatory. Other herbs and spices recommended for their anti-inflammatory properties include cinnamon, cumin, chili peppers, garlic, clove, rosemary, sage and oregano, she says.
A diet that's high in sugar is more inflammatory, says Joan Salge Blake, a professor of nutrition at Boston University and a U.S. News contributor. Still, Salge Blake, like many dietary experts, cautions against trying to cut things entirely out of the diet. Besides being difficult to sustain and usually unnecessary, extreme dietary changes or restrictions can lead to disordered eating. That said, limiting cakes, cookies and soda -- what have become everyday indulgences for many -- is key to strike a balance. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends limiting calories from added sugars to about 12 teaspoons (for a 2,000 calorie diet) per day. By comparison, the average American consumes about 17 teaspoons of sugar daily, and many have much more than that.
Limit refined carbohydrates.
Go easy on refined carbs such as white bread and crackers, which may also contribute to inflammation. In addition, sweets like doughnuts and pastries -- with refined carbs and lots of refined sugar -- are a double whammy if you're trying to avoid inflammatory foods. If you're a pasta fan, consider a whole-grain pasta over white, refined pasta. Generally speaking, whole foods are best -- and highly processed, carb-heavy foods should be limited.
Avoid processed meat and red meat high in saturated fat.
An added benefit of consuming healthy fats is that you're crowding out -- or limiting -- unhealthy ones in your diet that may be inflammatory, such as fatty red meats and processed meat like hot dogs and bacon. "So you're eating a fish -- a source that is very low in saturated fat and may be displacing in your diet a protein source that's very high in saturated fat," Salge Blake says. If you're craving meat, look for lean proteins like poultry or leaner cuts of grass-fed beef, which may also be a good source of omega-3s.
Avoid trans fats.
Due to public health concerns, factory-made trans fats -- aka partially hydrogenated oil -- are mostly gone from foods today. Still, because of the risk they pose -- like raising "bad" LDL cholesterol levels and the role they play in inflammation -- it's still worth double-checking food labels to make sure they don't sneak into your diet. Trans fats are sometimes still included in processed baked goods and fried foods -- essentially fare you'll want to avoid or limit.
Alcohol in moderation and everything in context
Having a glass of wine with dinner isn't discouraged with diets like the Mediterranean. But drinking in excess can increase inflammation, Salge Blake says. (The U.S. Department of Agriculture dietary guidelines suggest having no more than one drink per day for women and two daily for men.) Ultimately, if you're trying to reduce inflammation and improve your health through diet and lifestyle, the point is to consider everything you eat and drink. Look at the big picture of your lifestyle. "You can't say, 'OK, I'm going to have salmon two meals a week, and then I'm going to smoke and take in excess alcohol, be overweight and (not) eat any fruits and vegetables," Salge Blake stresses. "That's not going to work."
What to eat on an anti-inflammatory diet
-- Antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables.
-- Whole grains.
-- Salmon and other fatty fish.
-- Olive oil and flaxseed oil.
-- Herbs and spices, including turmeric and ginger.