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U.S. Representative Kathy Castor (D-Fla.) is introducing a bill in Congress that would strengthen the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA), banning targeted advertising to kids under 13 and extending privacy protections to all young people under the age of 18.
“The prosposed bill would ensure that the most vulnerable among us are better protected when they are online," says Katie McInnis, policy counsel for Consumer Reports. "It introduces a number of broad protections, but just as importantly, it closes several important loopholes that hindered enforcement under COPPA."
“The proposed bill would ensure that the most vulnerable among us are better protected when they are online," says Katie McInnis, policy counsel for Consumer Reports. "It introduces a number of broad protections, but just as importantly, it closes several important loopholes that hindered enforcement under COPPA."
The PRotecting the Information of our Vulnerable Children and Youth Act, also known as the PRIVCY Act, would create a protected class of “young consumers” ages 13-17, giving them greater control over what personal information is collected and what companies can do with it.
"Right now a 13-year old and a 35-year old are the same in the eyes of federal privacy law," explains Ariel Fox Johnson, senior counsel for privacy and policy with Common Sense Media, an advocacy group that is supporting the bill and was consulted about its content.
Castor's bill would ban companies from targeted advertisements aimed at children under 13 and require opt-in consent for teens, while preventing companies from making that consent a requirement for access to content. It would establish a "right to access" that would give parents and young people the ability to correct or delete information online.
"The bill expands the kinds of information explicitly covered to include physical characteristics, biometric information, health information, education information, contents of messages and calls, browsing and search history, geolocation information, and latent audio or visual recordings," said Castor at a press conference announcing the legislation.
Other provisions could give the legislation teeth in terms of real-world enforcement, according to privacy advocates.
McInnis notes, for example, that the proposed legislation would ban forced arbitration, and increase Federal Trade Commission penalties by 50 percent, while allowing the FTC to seek punitive damages against companies that violate the law.
The proposal also provides for an important private right of action for parents, allowing them to sue companies if their children's privacy is violated, which could potentially open the door for large civil judgments.
"This parental private right of action means that the law will actually be enforced and companies can't continue to take advantage of the FTC's limited bandwidth," Johnson explains.
The law would eliminate so-called "safe harbor" provisions in COPPA that allow companies to "self-regulate," a loophole that has resulted in more lenient enforcement without a corresponding increase in privacy protection, says McInnis.
"Researchers have discovered that apps 'certified' under the Safe Harbor program are no better, and may even be worse, than those that were not," she adds.
Finally the legislation would amend COPPA's "actual knowledge" provision, which currently allows companies to ignore important data that proves that a user is actually a child.
"If a company did not know a child's birthdate, they would say they . . . didn't have 'actual knowledge' [that the child was 12 years old] even if the company was tracking the child's location to elementary or middle school and knew they were working on fourth grade math," says Johnson. "This would get rid of companies turning a blind eye to that."
But Will It Become Law?
Castor's bill is the latest in a series of recent Congressional initiatives that could enhance online privacy protections for young people.
In March of 2019, senators Ed Markey (D-Mass.), one of the original authors of COPPA in 1998, and Josh Hawley (R-Mo.) introduced a bill generally referred to as COPPA 2.0. That one differs from Castor's PRIVCY legislation on several key points.
COPPA 2.0 only extends protection to teens up to age 16 and it doesn't allow for a private right of action, a sticking point for many Republicans, who are concerned about the potential damage a lawsuit can have on smaller businesses. However, it expands protections for users of connected toys and similar devices, requiring a point-of-sale privacy dashboard to alert parents of potential issues, as well as the creation of a division within the FTC charged with protecting childen's privacy.
Earlier this month, U.S. Representatives Tim Walberg (R-Mich.) and Bobby Rush (D-Ill.) introduced their own COPPA update, called the Preventing Real Online Threats Endangering Children Today (PROTECT).
The bill does include some basic extension of protections, safeguarding teens up to age 16, Johnson notes. In other ways, however, the Rush-Walberg bill may actually eliminate protections for digital information already protected under COPPA.
"The Rush-Walberg bill doesn't include online identifers and other information like audio and visual regulations, which COPPA currently covers," says Johnson. "That could definitely be seen as Congressional intent to cut back those protections."
Consumer Reports reached out to Rush and Walberg, but neither responded in time for publication.
It's always hard to predict the prospect of bills becoming law. Going forward, these protections may be folded into a comprehensive privacy bill like the Consumer Online Privacy Act (COPRA), proposed by Senator Maria Cantwell late last year. On the other hand, a stand-alone privacy bill for kids could face fewer hurdles.
"In the past, we've managed to get children's privacy legislation without getting comprehensive privacy legislation, so it's possible that the only thing Congress will be willing to do is kids," Johnson explains. "But we're hopeful that adults could have protections, too, and all the main comprehensive drafts we've seen had a place for special protections for kids."
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