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How are cars holding up? The reliability history charts, included on each car model page on CR.org, give you the most comprehensive reliability information available to consumers. (To find our ratings & reliability information go to our main Cars page and select a vehicle by make and model).
The reliability data comes from our annual auto reliability survey of Consumer Reports members. In all, we received responses on over 420,000 vehicles in our latest survey, detailing 2000 to 2019, and some early introduced 2020 models.
Consumer Reports members reported on any problems they had with their vehicles during the past 12 months that they considered serious because of cost, failure, safety, or downtime, in any of the trouble spots included in the table below.
The scores in the charts are based on the percentage of respondents who reported problems in each of the 17 trouble spots. Because high-mileage cars tend to encounter more problems than low-mileage cars, problem rates are standardized to minimize differences due to mileage.
How to Read the Model Page Charts
To check on the reliability history of a particular year's model, start with the Overall Reliability Verdict Score. This score shows whether the model had more or fewer problems overall than the average model of that year, calculated from the total number of problems reported by members in all trouble spots. Because problems with the engine major, engine cooling, transmission major, and drive system can be serious and expensive to repair, our calculations give extra weight to problems in those areas.
To see how the model that's currently on sale is likely to hold up, look at the New Car Predicted Reliability in the model Overview. For this rating, we averaged a model's Overall Reliability Verdict Score for the newest three years, provided the vehicle did not change significantly in that time and hasn't been redesigned for 2020. We have found that several model years' data are a better predictor than the single most recent model year. We also we include a prediction for a model that has been redesigned or is new, based on its reliability history, the manufacturer's track record, and our expert knowledge of similar models and/or one that share components. (Learn more about car reliability.)
To see a model's individual strengths and weaknesses, look at the individual scores for each of the 17 Trouble Spots. The "Average Problem Rates" chart below shows the average problem rates for models in the survey in each trouble spot by model year. Scores are based on the percentage of survey respondents who reported problems for that trouble spot, compared with the average of all vehicles for that year.
Models that score a are not necessarily unreliable, but have a higher rate of problems than the average model. Similarly, models that score are not necessarily problem-free, but had relatively few problems compared with other models.
Because problem rates in some trouble spots are very low, we do not assign a or a unless the model's problem rate exceeds 3 percent. If a problem rate is below 2 or 1 percent it will be assigned a or a respectively. In the charts, a model year an * identifies the year of a major redesign or introduction.
(Key for reliability ratings from "better" to "worse")
What the Trouble Spots Include
ENGINE MAJOR: Engine rebuild or replacement, cylinder head, head gasket, turbocharger or supercharger, timing chain or belt.
ENGINE MINOR: Accessory belts and pulleys, engine computer, engine mounts, engine knock or ping, fuel leaks, oil leaks.
ENGINE COOLING: Radiator, cooling fan, water pump, thermostat, antifreeze leaks, overheating.
TRANSMISSION MAJOR: Transmission rebuild or replacement, torque converter, premature clutch replacement.
TRANSMISSION MINOR: Gear selector and linkage, transmission computer, transmission sensor or solenoid, clutch adjustment, rough shifting, slipping transmission, leaks.
DRIVE SYSTEM: Driveshaft or axle, CV joint, differential, transfer case, four-wheel-drive/all-wheel-drive components, driveline vibration, electrical failure, traction control, electronic stability control (ESC).
FUEL SYSTEM/EMISSIONS: Sensors (O2 or oxygen sensor), emission-control devices (includes EGR), fuel-injection system, fuel cap, fuel gauge/sender, fuel pump.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM: Alternator, starter, hybrid/electric battery replacement, hybrid/electric battery related systems, regular battery, battery cables, engine harness, coil, ignition switch, electronic ignition, distributor or rotor failure, spark plugs and wires failure.
CLIMATE SYSTEM: A/C compressor, blower (fan) motor, condenser, evaporator, heater system, automatic climate system, electrical failure, refrigerant leakage.
SUSPENSION/STEERING: Shocks or struts, ball joints, tie rods, wheel bearings, alignment, steering linkage (includes rack and pinion), power steering (pumps and hoses, leaks), wheel balance, springs or torsion bars, bushings, electronic or air suspension.
BRAKES: Antilock system (ABS), parking brake, master cylinder, calipers, rotors, pulsation or vibration, squeaking, brake failure, premature wear.
EXHAUST: Muffler, pipes, catalytic converter, exhaust manifold, heat shields, leaks.
PAINT/TRIM: Paint (fading, chalking, peeling or cracking), loose interior or exterior trim or moldings, rust.
BODY INTEGRITY (Noises/leaks): Squeaks, rattles, wind noises, seals, and/or weather stripping, air and water leaks.
BODY HARDWARE: Windows, locks and latches, doors or sliding doors, tailgate, trunk or hatch, mirrors, seat controls (movement and temperature), seat belts, sunroof, convertible top, glass defect.
POWER EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES: Cruise control, clock, warning lights, body control module, keyless entry, wiper motor or washer, tire pressure monitor, interior or exterior lights, horn, gauges, 12V power plug, USB port, alarm or security system, remote engine start, heated or cooled seats.
IN-CAR ELECTRONICS: CD player, rear entertainment system (rear screen or DVD player), radio, speakers, in-dash GPS, display screen freezes or goes blank, phone pairing (e.g. Bluetooth), voice control commands, steering wheel controls, portable music device interface (e.g., iPod/MP3 player), backup or other camera/sensors, Android Auto/Apple CarPlay, infotainment hardware replacement and software fixes.
Average Problem Rates
The chart below shows the average problem rates for all models in the survey in each trouble spot. For example, on average, the 2012 models have 2% problems for Engine Major, 4% for Brakes, 4% for Climate System, etc.
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