Millions of Americans will turn back their clocks this month, marking the end of daylight saving time in 2023.
The controversial practice of "springing forward" and "falling back" has been observed in most states for decades. Under the current daylight saving time period, most Americans lose an hour of sleep on the second Sunday of March and gain an hour the first Sunday of November.
So why do we "fall back" and "spring forward"? Here's what to know about the origins of daylight saving time.
Daylight saving time: When do we fall back?
Daylight saving time ends Nov. 5 at 2 a.m. We will "fall back," turning our clocks back to 1 a.m., gaining an extra hour of sleep.
Why is there daylight saving time?
Daylight saving time was introduced in the United States in 1918 with the Standard Time Act, which was meant to lower fuel costs during the First World War. The law also established a standard time and allowed the federal government to create five time zones.
The government stopped observing daylight saving time after World War I ended, but reimplemented it during World War II. Congress decided to make daylight saving time permanent for two years from 1973 to 1975, extending the hours of daily sunlight to conserve energy during the oil embargo crisis. However, the law was repealed in 1974 for being unpopular and ineffective.
In 1966, Congress passed the Uniform Time Act, standardizing the length of daylight saving time. The dates we use to observe daylight saving time today ‒ starting on the second Sunday of March and ending on the first Sunday of November – were established in 2005 when Congress amended the Act.
According to the Department of Transportation, daylight saving time saves energy, prevents traffic injuries and reduces crime.
Who came up with the idea for daylight saving time?
Benjamin Franklin is often credited with first proposing daylight saving in his 1784 essay, "An Economical Project." The idea wasn't seriously considered, however, until more than a century later when William Willetts, a British builder, fiercely advocated for it.
The current daylight saving time format was proposed in New Zealand by entomologist George Hudson. In 1895, he recommended a two-hour time change because he wanted to have more daylight after work to go hunting for bugs in the summer.
Do all states and U.S. territories observe daylight saving time?
Not all states and U.S. territories participate in daylight saving time.
Hawaii and Arizona (with the exception of the Navajo Nation) do not observe daylight saving time, and neither do the territories of American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Could daylight saving time become permanent?
Ohio's House State and Local Government Committee passed House Concurrent Resolution 7 on Tuesday. The legislation would urge Congress to enact the Sunshine Uniformity Act of 2023, making daylight saving time permanent.
Eliminating the time change could help ease mental health issues connected to darker winter evenings, State Rep. Rodney Creech argued.
State Rep. Bob Peterson, one of the bill's sponsors, said during the committee process there was discussion about not wanting to isolate Ohio from its surrounding states by having a different time. Peterson said they are asking Congress to act so that the whole country is consistent.
If passed, the Sunshine Uniformity Act of 2023 would make daylight saving time permanent nationwide.
Is it daylight savings time or daylight saving time?
While it's common to hear "daylight savings" with an "s," the correct term is "daylight saving time," since the practice saves daylight.
This article originally appeared on Cincinnati Enquirer: Ready to set your clocks back? Here's when daylight saving time ends