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Jeff Bezos just launched to the edge of space. Here's how Blue Origin's plans stack up to SpaceX and Virgin Galactic.

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Elon Musk (left), Jeff Bezos (center), and Richard Branson.
Elon Musk, Jeff Bezos, and Richard Branson. Patrick Pluel/Getty; Alex Wong/Getty; Hollis Johnson/Insider
  • Jeff Bezos, Elon Musk, and Richard Branson all have ventures dedicated to space travel.

  • Each billionaire has his own vision for humanity's future in space.

  • Bezos on Tuesday launched to the edge of space, becoming the second of the three to do so.

  • See more stories on Insider's business page.

Elon Musk's SpaceX may be the buzziest name in private space exploration, but the Tesla CEO isn't the only superrich entrepreneur with grand visions for humanity's future beyond Earth's atmosphere.

The Amazon founder and fellow centi-billionaire, Jeff Bezos, has his own space firm - Blue Origin. He flew on the company's human flight to the edge of space on Tuesday, launching 62 miles above the Earth's surface aboard its New Shepard rocket.

Richard Branson, whose Virgin Group dabbles in everything from airlines to healthcare, launched a commercial-spaceflight company of his own called Virgin Galactic. Earlier this month, he launched 53.5 skyward on one of the company's rocket-powered planes, fulfilling a decades-long dream of traveling to space.

These three companies were all founded within a few years of one another in the early 2000s, but each has its own business model and plans for a space-faring future.

Here's what Musk, Bezos, and Branson are each trying to accomplish, and where their efforts stand today.

Elon Musk

Musk founded SpaceX in 2002, years before becoming Tesla's outspoken CEO and cementing himself as a regular fixture in the Twittersphere.

The company grew out of an idea Musk had to send a spacecraft called the "Mars Oasis" to the red planet. The vehicle would deliver an experimental greenhouse and equipment for taking photos of the planet and sending them back to Earth. Musk hoped the project would spark a renewed interest in getting to Mars within the US government.

The SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket takes off at the Kennedy Space Center on May 30, 2020 in Cape Canaveral, Florida.
The SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket taking off at the Kennedy Space Center on May 30, 2020, in Cape Canaveral, Florida. Joe Raedle/Getty Images

He pledged $20 million to fund the mission - and attempted to purchase some refurbished intercontinental ballistic missiles from Russia to no avail - but discovered that the project was way out of his budget. He founded SpaceX to develop reusable rockets that would lower the cost of blasting people and things into space.

That's what the Hawthorne, California-based SpaceX has spent the better part of the past two decades trying to achieve, and it's made some great strides.

SpaceX launch in Texas
SpaceX launching its first super-heavy-lift Starship SN8 rocket during a test from its facility in Boca Chica, Texas, on December 9. Gene Blevins/Reuters

It has completed numerous launches for commercial and government customers, and in 2012 it became the first private company to send a spacecraft to the International Space Station. In 2020 it became the first to send humans to space and to the ISS. And in April NASA picked the company to land the first astronauts on the Moon since 1972.

SpaceX is also working on a broadband-internet service consisting of thousands of satellites, called Starlink. The service hopes to deliver high-speed internet to remote and rural areas, and SpaceX recently said it had more than 500,000 orders and deposits.

SpaceX Starship.JPG
A prototype of SpaceX's Starship spacecraft at the company's facility in Boca Chica. REUTERS/Callaghan O'Hare

Ultimately, Musk thinks humanity's future hinges on its ability to settle Mars. He said in 2020 that he wanted to establish a city of 1 million people on Mars by 2050. Settlers would get there using a fleet of 1,000 SpaceX Starships - the towering, 387-foot-tall rocket ship the company is designing for deep-space travel.

Jeff Bezos

Like Musk, the Amazon billionaire Bezos' fascination with space travel stretches back decades. He's been particularly taken with the physicist Gerard O'Neill's visions of floating space stations that could house trillions of humans once Earth runs out of resources.

To indulge his obsession, Bezos founded Blue Origin in 2000 with a similar goal as Musk's venture: Make space exploration cheaper through boosters that can be recycled for future launches. The Kent, Washington-based company operated in total secrecy until about 2003, and Bezos stayed tight-lipped about its plans for more than a decade after that.

new shepard reusable rocket launch 2016 blue origin
Blue Origin's reusable New Shepard suborbital rocket launching toward space in 2016. Blue Origin

For years now, the company has been testing a suborbital rocket called New Shepard, built to take paying tourists to the edge of space in a pressurized capsule. The idea is that on a Blue Origin flight, space tourists will be able to catch a glimpse of Earth through large windows and experience a few minutes of weightlessness.

Blue Origin completed its first human flight aboard New Shepard on Tuesday when it launched Bezos, his brother Mark, legendary aviator Wally Funk, and 18-year-old student Oliver Daemen more than 350,000 feet up. Daemen, whose father paid millions for his son's ticket to space, was able to join the flight after the winner of an auction backed out due to scheduling conflicts.

Read more: A private astronaut explains why his next flight - likely with Tom Cruise - is 'setting the bar for commercial human spaceflight forever'

"Ever since I was five years old, I've dreamed of traveling to space," Jeff Bezos wrote in an Instagram post. "On July 20th, I will take that journey with my brother. The greatest adventure, with my best friend."

new shepard space capsule interior blue origin 01
A sneak peek at the final design of Blue Origin's New Shepard capsule for suborbital space tourists. Blue Origin

The company is also developing a larger rocket called New Glenn for delivering payloads to low orbit, along with a secretive future project called New Armstrong. If you're sensing a pattern here, you're right - Blue Origin's launch vehicles are all named for former NASA astronauts.

In 2019, Bezos revealed plans for a lunar lander called Blue Moon, which the company said would be ready in 2024 and would eventually help establish a "sustained human presence" on the moon. Blue Origin bid for a contract to land NASA astronauts on the moon and was beat out by SpaceX - but the company is disputing the decision.

jeff bezos blue origin blue moon
Blue Origin unveiled a lunar lander, but it lost to SpaceX for a contract to take NASA astronauts to the moon. REUTERS/Clodagh Kilcoyne

When Bezos announced plans to step down as Amazon's CEO in 2021, he said he planned to dedicate more time to his other ventures, including Blue Origin. And in a 2018 interview with Mathias Döpfner, the CEO of Insider's parent company, Axel Springer, Bezos called the rocket company his "most important work."

Richard Branson

Branson's space venture differs from Blue Origin and SpaceX in a couple of key ways. Virgin Galactic is focused on suborbital tourism, rather than launching people and payloads into space. It also has a radically different method of sending spacecraft out of Earth's atmosphere.

Virgin galactic whiteknighttwo
A Virgin Galactic spacecraft attached to its carrier vehicle, WhiteKnightTwo. Virgin Galactic

Virgin Galactic doesn't launch rockets straight up from the ground like its rivals. Instead, its spacecraft are meant to be flown to 50,000 feet by a broad, dual-fuselage jet called WhiteKnightTwo. From there, the ship detaches and glides for a few seconds before firing up its rocket motor and beginning a near-vertical ascent to about 300,000 feet.

The company completed its first fully-crewed flight to the edge of space earlier this month, launching its founder and others more than 50 miles skyward. Virgin Galactic planned to accept passengers in 2021, it's pushed those plans to next year. It has sold 600 tickets for $200,000 to $250,000 apiece.

Richard Branson on Virgin Galactic space ship
Richard Branson prepares to take off in a Virgin Galactic space ship on July 11, 2021. Virgin Galactic.

When the spacecraft reaches its final altitude, customers will be able to get out of their seats and spend several minutes floating around the luxurious cabin and gazing back at Earth or out into space. Virgin also plans to offer flights for research purposes. Once the spacecraft is pulled back into Earth's atmosphere, it will be piloted back to Virgin's New Mexico facility for a runway landing.

Richard Branson in space aboard a Virgin Galactic rocket plane.
Richard Branson floats in space aboard a Virgin Galactic rocket plane on July 11, 2021. Virgin Galactic

Virgin Galactic's spacecraft are reusable, aside from their fuel, and the company hopes to make launching things and people into space more economical and environmentally sound.

In March, Virgin Galactic unveiled the VSS Imagine, the first of its next-generation SpaceShip III vehicles. Before that, it had built and flown two SpaceShipTwo spacecraft, including the VSS Enterprise, which was obliterated in a fatal crash in 2014.

Virgin Galactic VSS Imagine
In March, Virgin Galactic unveiled its next spacecraft, the VSS Imagine. Virgin Galactic

In the future, Virgin Galactic plans to operate a fleet of vehicles that could fly tourists to space hotels, transport researchers to floating labs, or provide lightning-fast transcontinental flights. In 2017, it spun off a company called Virgin Orbit, which is working to send satellites into orbit using a similar air-launch system.

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