Rescue workers search for survivors in the rubble of a collapsed building in the town of Jableh in Syria's northwestern province of Latakia following an earthquake, on Feb. 7, 2023. Credit - Oguz Yeter—Anadolu Agency/Getty Images
When a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck southeastern Turkey and northwestern Syria early Monday morning local time, its tremor could be felt as far afield as Lebanon, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, and the Palestinian territories. A second quake, which recorded a magnitude of 7.5, struck just 9 hours later.
Both countries at the center are still reeling from the devastating aftermath, rescue workers on the ground tell TIME. So far, more than 7,200 people have been killed as a result of the quakes, and tens of thousands more have been injured. Thousands of buildings have also been reduced to rubble.
Though earthquakes are not uncommon in this part of the world, today’s is believed to be the largest and deadliest one to hit Turkey in decades. Here’s what we know about it.
When and where did the earthquakes in Turkey occur?
The initial earthquake struck the southern Turkish city of Gaziantep, roughly 150 miles away from the Turkey-Syria border, at 4:17 a.m. local time at a depth of about 11 miles, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. The second earthquake, the epicenter of which was roughly 80 miles north of Gaziantep in Turkey’s Kahramanmaras province, struck at 1:24 p.m. local time and was six miles deep, according to USGS.
More than 300 aftershocks rumbled after the initial quakes, according to Turkey’s Vice President Fuat Oktay.
How big is a 7.8 quake on the local magnitude scale?
While an earthquake magnitude of 2.5 or less can pass by undetected, earthquakes with a magnitude of 7.0 or higher are classified as a “major earthquake,” which can cause serious damage. A magnitude 8.0 or higher, considered “a great earthquake,” is capable of destroying entire communities.
While the magnitude of an earthquake denotes its size and strength, the potential damage caused by a quake is also determined by its depth (the shallower the quake, the more damaging) and its proximity to population centers.
In a tweet, U.S. Geological Survey seismologist Susan Hough likened the size of the initial earthquake in Turkey to San Francisco’s Great Earthquake of 1906, which left more than 3,000 dead and much of the city in ruin.
Are Turkey and Syria prone to earthquakes?
Earthquakes are not uncommon in Turkey. Most of the country is situated on the Anatolian Plate, which borders two major fault lines: the North Anatolian fault, which stretches across the country from west to east, and the East Anatolian fault, which is in eastern Turkey. The former has been the site of several disastrous earthquakes, according to the Geological Society of London, including the 1939 earthquake in northeastern Turkey that resulted in the deaths of 30,000 people.
Monday’s initial 7.8 magnitude earthquake is believed to have occurred on either the East Anatolian fault zone or the Dead Sea transform fault zone, according to USGS.
What is the scale of the damage?
The death toll has been staggering and surpassed 7,200 people—a figure that is almost certain to continue to rise amid search and rescue efforts. More than 5,400 deaths have been reported in Turkey and 1,800 in Syria. The World Health Organization has warned that the combined count could reach 20,000, and that 23 million people could be affected by the disaster.
More than 26,000 people have also been reported injured so far, according to data from Turkey’s government, Syrian state media, and the humanitarian organization White Helmets.
Ismail Al Abdullah, a White Helmets volunteer contributing to rescue efforts near the Syrian-Turkish border, tells TIME that the aftermath of the earthquakes have been nothing short of “heartbreaking.” In the Syrian village of Sarmadā, where he is based, at least five buildings have collapsed, leaving many families trapped beneath the rubble.
“We tried our best to rescue them,” says Al Abdullah. “But we couldn’t. We couldn’t.”
As a veteran of the White Helmets, which was established as a volunteer corps of first responders during the Syrian Civil War, Al Abdullah isn’t new to search and rescue efforts. But even he admits that the scale of yesterday’s earthquakes pose an unprecedented challenge. “We’ve dealt with bombing, but this kind of natural disaster is bigger than us.”
While the full scale of the infrastructure damage is yet to be fully known, Orhan Tatar, general director of the country’s Disaster and Emergency Management Agency (AFAD), said Tuesday that it has received 11,342 reports of collapsed buildings—5,775 buildings have been confirmed.
Turkey has deployed 59,971 search and rescue personnel, according to AFAD.
Oktay said Tuesday that 380,000 survivors are being sheltered in government dorms or hotels.
Turkey closed roads to the hard hit cities of Hatay, Kahramanmaraş, and Adıyaman to all vehicles except those aiding in search and rescue efforts, amid deep logistical challenges following the quakes. Severe weather conditions are hampering search and rescue efforts in Turkey and Syria. Overnight temperatures are set to dip below freezing on Wednesday.
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has declared a state of emergency for three months in 10 provinces.
What the earthquakes mean for Syrian refugees
The densely-populated northwestern region of Syria impacted by the earthquakes is already home to more than 4 million people who rely on humanitarian assistance, according to the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.
Many are internally displaced persons who have fled for opposition-controlled areas since the Syrian conflict broke out more than a decade ago. The region is controlled by various armed groups and relies heavily on international aid, most of which is delivered via Turkey.
The U.N. reported on Monday that at least 224 buildings in northwestern Syria were completely destroyed, while at least 325 were damaged. The head of the The White Helmets, Raed al-Saleh, said on Tuesday that hundreds of families remain trapped under rubble.
The region had already been grappling with a cholera outbreak before the Monday’s earthquakes.
Warnings over building construction in Turkey
Turkey’s Union of Engineers and Architects (TMMOB) have long been sounding the alarm on the lack of earthquake infrastructure. Turkey’s location on the Anatolian Plate means that damaging earthquakes are a matter of when, not if.
After a devastating earthquake hit the country in 1999 and killed some 17,000 people, the government at the time promised to reform the country’s earthquake infrastructure—pledging to create new construction standards and strengthen existing buildings. The plan involved designating hundreds of urban spaces as evacuation points in case of emergency. But, over the years, an explosion of new developments undid many of the planned earthquake readiness improvements, and open air evacuation zones were converted into high rises, NPR reported in 2017.
“This place you see in front of us was a public green space, and after the 1999 earthquake, it was designated as a public meeting area,” lawmaker Gursel Tekin told NPR at the time. “Unfortunately, now it is only a monstrous concrete mountain.”
In the aftermath of a 5.9 magnitude earthquake at the end of 2022, TMMOB released a statement saying that “our country has failed in terms of what needs to be done before the earthquake.”
The union added that site supervision “continues to be seen as a procedure on paper only,” noting that, “It is essential that the design, construction and inspection processes are carried out in a correct and vigorous way in order to ensure the safety of buildings against earthquakes. In each of these three pillars of safe construction, it is known that there are serious problems both legally and in practice.”
How the international community responded to the earthquakes
Oktay said Tuesday that 3,294 search and rescue teams from 14 countries are already in the country and assisting relief efforts. The countries include Czech Republic, France, Malta, the Netherlands, India, Poland, Algeria, Italy, Moldova, Albania, Israel, Uzbekistan, Hungary, Germany, Serbia, Slovakia, Qatar, Britain, and Russia.
In a statement, the European Union said it is also directing its satellite system to help map the destruction caused by the quake and assist search and rescue efforts.
The U.S. national security adviser, Jake Sullivan, said in a statement that Washington stood “ready to provide any and all needed assistance” to Turkey. President Biden has ordered USAID and other agencies to assess response options, the statement added.
China has also pledged $6 million in aid to Turkey, and rescue teams are headed to the country.
On Monday, Russian President Vladimir Putin held separate calls with Erdoğan and Syrian President Bashar al-Assad to pledge assistance. Moscow is the most important foreign power operating in Syria.
How to donate and help victims of the earthquakes
International relief efforts are well underway. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies has announced that it is launching “immediate cash assistance” from its Disaster Response Emergency Fund to help relief efforts. The International Rescue Committee, an organization that responds to the most serious humanitarian crises, are on the ground and has set up a fund to assist families in Turkey and Syria.
The Union of Medical Care and Relief Organisations, which provides healthcare in opposition-held parts of northwestern Syria, is also soliciting urgent international aid. As is the Syrian American Medical Society and the White Helmets.
Other charitable organizations such as Oxfam, Action for Humanity, CARE, and Human Appeal have launched fundraisers to support their own teams working on the ground. You can find more ways to donate here.
— WITH REPORTING BY SIMMONE SHAH