Mr Carlson said the US should “probably take the side of Russia” in a dispute between Mr Putin’s country and Ukraine, even though Ukraine is a US ally.
However, the Fox News presenter quickly replied that he “totally opposed” those sanctions.
“I should say for the record, I’m totally opposed to these sanctions and I don’t think we should be at war with Russia… I think we should probably take the side of Russia, uh, if we have to choose between Russia and Ukraine,” he said.
Last Monday, Mr Carlson said on his primetime TV show that he was “rooting for Russia” in the conflict with Ukraine, before walking back that comment as a joke later in the episode.
His support for Russia on yesterday’s show, which included a segment defending Mr Putin, did not come with that clarification.
Earlier in the show, Mr Carlson criticised journalists such as NBC’s Chuck Todd for denouncing the Russian president and rejected the conclusion of US intelligence services and the Mueller report that Russia interfered in the 2016 presidential election.
“Could any of these people actually tell you why Vladimir Putin is so bad? Why is he so bad?” he asked.
“What makes Vladimir Putin worse than a whole long list of American allies?”
Mr Carlson added: “The irony, of course, is that Putin, for all his faults, does not hate America as much as many of these people [US journalists] do. They really dislike our country.”
The US condemned Russia following the annexation of Crimea in 2014 and it has been US foreign policy to pressure the country over its military activity in Ukraine.
Mr Trump is currently the subject of an impeachment inquiry over allegations that he withheld military aid to Ukraine to force its president to announce an investigation into his 2020 election rival Joe Biden.
The president has denied any wrongdoing despite multiple US officials coming forward with concerns over his conduct with Ukraine.
Ukraine's prosecutor general has said there is no evidence of wrongdoing by Mr Biden, who is a former US vice president and Democratic presidential candidate.