The door to Europe hasn't swung shut for Americans. But in the days since the European Union removed the United States from its "safe list," several countries have put up new roadblocks - and some have blocked the way altogether.
American travelers can still visit much of the continent, though pandemic-era entry requirements are all over the map. The E.U. move late last month leaves individual states to decide which restrictions to put in place.
So far, the changes have included adding testing rules, putting vaccine mandates into place for travelers, adding quarantine requirements and even banning visitors.
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"We have to accept that we are still living through the reality of this ongoing pandemic and will not return to 'normal' straight away with some setbacks on our way to recovery," Luís Araújo, president of the European Travel Commission, said in an email. "However, we believe that with current vaccination rates and safety protocols in place, safe international travel is possible. And this summer has proven it well."
Araújo said most European destinations remain open to U.S. visitors, and encouraged Americans to check the Re-open EU website (reopen.europa.eu/en) or national tourism office sites for updated information.
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Americans who have not been vaccinated will no longer be allowed to vacation in France, starting Sept. 12.
The French government has moved the United States from its green list to orange, which means unvaccinated people coming from the country need "proof of a compelling reason" to enter France. That includes diplomats, some students and healthcare workers - but not tourists.
Those with a compelling reason still need a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours or antigen test within 48 hours, and must self-isolate for seven days after arriving. There is no change for vaccinated travelers.
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The government of Sweden said this month that it was reintroducing the ban on entry for travelers from the United States, effective Sept. 6. Only those with exemptions - including those who have residence permits in Sweden, have "particularly urgent needs" or have to carry out essential functions - can enter. Those who qualify for an exemption still need a negative coronavirus test to enter.
The U.S. Embassy in Sweden notes that Americans who live in an exempted country can still enter Sweden, as can U.S. citizens who are coming through a Nordic or European country - though rules vary by country.
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According to the U.S. Embassy in the Netherlands, U.S. visitors must be fully vaccinated, test negative and comply with a mandatory quarantine. That self-quarantine period is 10 days, but a negative test on the fifth day could shorten the time, according to a government site.
Eric Drésin, secretary general of the association representing European travel agents and tour operators, called the Dutch policy a "de facto ban" during a discussion between global trade associations this week.
"Who wants to come to Amsterdam and stay their whole holiday in quarantine?" he said.
On Sept. 15, the government said the rules for self-quarantine would change on Sept. 22. Vaccinated travelers from the United States, United Kingdom and other areas considered "very high-risk" will not have to quarantine upon arrival after that date.
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Travelers to Italy need a negative test result within 72 hours of arrival, plus proof of vaccination or a certificate confirming recovery from covid-19 that is no more than six months old, according to the U.S. Embassy in Italy. Those who can't show that they are vaccinated or recently recovered from the virus will need to self-isolate for five days and get tested at the end of that time.
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As of Sept. 6, U.S. travelers must show proof of vaccination against the coronavirus to visit Spain, according to the U.S. Embassy there.
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U.S. residents can visit Belgium with a valid vaccination certificate as of the beginning of September, according to the Belgian Embassy in the United States. They do not need to show an essential-travel certificate.
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Effective Sept. 4, Denmark allows fully vaccinated U.S. travelers for any reason. They are exempt from testing and quarantine requirements once they arrive, according to the U.S. Embassy in Denmark. Those who are unvaccinated can visit only if they have an accepted "worthy purpose" and a negative coronavirus test.