Various cesses levied by the Modi government are squeezing Indian state budgets

Shoaib Daniyal
Various cesses levied by the Modi government are squeezing Indian state budgets

One of Narendra Modi’s biggest policy initiatives in his first term was Swachh Bharat, the Clean India initiative. It helped Modi build his image as a statesman who looked at the big picture—as well as win votes by building toilets for millions across India. Using a cess: the Swachh Bharat cess came into being in 2015 as part of a 0.5% levy on services.