Mali timeline: A year of turmoil

Colonel Assimi Goita is the man behind two military takeovers in the past year

Mali has suffered two military coups and an attempted assassination in the past year in addition to an ongoing jihadist insurgency.

Here is a timeline on the anniversary of the first military takeover:

- August coup -

On August 18, 2020, President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita is overthrown by a group of young army officers after months of protests sparked by perceived corruption and failure to quash jihadist violence.

The following day, Assimi Goita, a colonel believed to be in his late thirties, emerges as the new military strongman.

The coup is roundly condemned by the international community and the West African economic bloc, ECOWAS, imposes sanctions.

- Civilian interim president -

On September 12, the junta bows to international pressure and vows to allow full civilian rule within 18 months.

On September 21 former defence minister Bah Ndaw is made interim president with Colonel Goita as vice president.

A fortnight later a government is formed with the military holding the key posts. ECOWAS lifts its sanctions.

- Election dates set -

On April 15 the dates of presidential and parliamentary elections for a civilian transfer of power are set for February and March 2022.

- Government resigns -

With discontent with the military growing, the government of prime minister Moctar Ouane resigns on May 14. But he is put straight back in charge and 10 days later forms a new interim government, dropping some military figures from key posts.

- Army steps in again -

Army officers unhappy with the reshuffle promptly arrest Ouane and president Ndaw, enacting a second military takeover.

The international community demands their release, with France warning that the European Union could impose sanctions.

Colonel Goita says he stripped the pair of their powers for trying to "sabotage" the transition. But he says he will stick to the interim government's election deadline.

- The Goita enigma -

As the United Nations Security Council condemns the arrests, the junta says Ndaw and Ouane have resigned.

On May 27 Ouane and Ndaw are reportedly freed, but ECOWAS says they remain under house arrest.

The following day Mali's constitutional court declares Goita transitional president. He promises that a new prime minister will be appointed within days.

- Out of ECOWAS, AU -

On May 30, Mali is suspended from ECOWAS, although the bloc stops short of reimposing sanctions. Two days later the African Union follows suit.

On June 3, France suspends joint military operations with Mali.

Despite the condemnation, Goita is sworn in as transitional president and promises that "credible, fair and transparent elections" will be held by February 2022.

He appoints a veteran political player, Choguel Kokalla Maiga, 63, as prime minister.

- Assassination bid -

On July 20, Goita survives an assassination attempt at Bamako's main mosque.

Five days later the government says the man accused of lunging at him with a knife has died in detention after "his health deteriorated".