The Moon

SHOTLIST AFP INFOGRAPHIE IMAGES 01:53 - In space, a pan across the Moon seen half in shade.- Zoom in to the Moon.- Cut to the white surface, footprints.- Landscape with a moon horizon, astronaut floats in the foreground, the sun appears..- Image of an astronaut in a space suit on the surface. A thermometer comes into view showing the temperature.- Pan upwards to a view of space above the Moon.- A white cricle appears. Another appears at speed, crashing against the circular shape, bouncing off it to form another shape, which begins orbiting the Earth.- Smaller fragments appear and crash into Earth, gradually forming the Moon.- View of Earth and the Moon. White line indicates the distance between the two.- White line indicating the Earth's axis. Another line indicates the movement of the Earth.- Box appears with a house, wind sock fluttering.- Second box showing the Moon revolving around Earth.- White line to indicate orbit of the moon, yellow line indicates the side of the Moon facing Earth.- Image showing the moon aligned with the Sun and Earth.- Return to the surface of the Moon, astronauts, spacecraft landed on the surface.- Pan across to show moon base, buildings. AFP TEXT STORYSeptember 11, 2020 NASA on Thursday announced it was in the market for Moon rocks, and wants to pay companies to scoop out the dirt, take a photo, and then have it ready for collection by a future mission. The contract doesn't actually involve getting to the Moon itself -- a feat only achieved by the national space agencies of three countries -- but instead envisages companies designing a robot that NASA or major private sector players can then launch. "NASA is buying lunar soil from a commercial provider! It's time to establish the regulatory certainty to extract and trade space resources," tweeted administrator Jim Bridenstine. The US wants to become a leader in the exploitation of resources found in the soil or subsoil of asteroids and the Moon, a policy outlined in an executive order by President Donald Trump last year, despite an absence of international or legal consensus on the best way to manage extraterrestrial mining. The major space treaties are vague on the question. For the current tender, it has asked companies from around the world to present proposals to collect 50 to 500 grams of Moon rock, or regolith, from anywhere on the surface, provide imagery to prove it, then transfer sole ownership to NASA. Companies would set their own bids, and be paid 20 percent up front with the remainder upon successful completion of their mission. NASA anticipates that the contracts will be worth some tens of thousands of dollars, according to the tender documents...(continues) SCRIPT ENThe Moon is the only place beyond Earth where humans have set foot…for now at least. It has an unhospitable environment, the weak atmosphere offering no protection from the sun’s radiation or from meteoroids. Surface temperatures range from 127 degrees Celsius in the Sun to - 173 degrees Celsius in darkness.There are several theories about how the moon was formed. The main hypothesis is it was the result of a collision between a Mars-sized body and Earth about 4.5 billion years ago.But a new study has suggested that the moon was instead forged by a rash of smaller bodies smashing into an embryonic earth, a multiple impact scenario rather than a single impact hypothesis.Despite being around 384,400 kilometres away from Earth, and less than a third of the width, our planet’s only natural satellite plays a vital role, moderating how much the Earth wobbles on its axis. This results in our relatively stable climate. The Moon’s gravitational field also affects tidal movement on earth.The time it takes the moon to turn once on its axis is the same length of time as it takes to orbit the Earth, which is roughly 27 days. As a result, the same hemisphere always faces Earth. Solar eclipses occur when the moon sneaks between Earth and the Sun, and the three bodies align precisely. Multiple Moon missions haven’t found any evidence of life, but that’s not to say that it won’t be colonized by humans in the future. Gravity is around one – sixth of earth’s which explains why astronauts seem to bounce across the surface. Source: NASA, Nature Geoscience La lune(246 mots)La lune est le seul endroit, en dehors de la Terre, ou l’homme ait jamais posé le pied…Pour l’instant.L’environnement y est inhospitalier. L’atmosphère lunaire, très peu dense, n’offre aucune protection contre les rayonnements solaires ou les météorites. La température peut atteindre 127 degrés Celsius au soleil et descendre jusqu’à -173 degrés dans l’obscurité.Plusieurs théories expliquent sa formation. L'hypothèse la plus largement répandue et celle d'une seule et énorme collision entre la Terre et un corps céleste de la taille de Mars, qui aurait arraché une grande partie de la matière terrestre, il y a 4,5 milliards d’années. Mais selon une récente étude ravivant un ancien scénario, elle viendrait plutôt d’une série d'impacts avec des corps célestes plus petits, s’étant écrasés successivement sur notre terre embryonnaire. Situé à environ 384 000 kilomètres de la Terre, et mesurant moins d’un tiers de sa largeur, notre unique satellite naturel joue pourtant un rôle essentiel. Il stabilise l’axe de rotation de la Terre, permettant ainsi au climat de rester relativement stable, et sa force gravitationnelle génère en grande partie les marées. La lune tourne sur elle-même dans le même temps qu’elle effectue un tour complet autour de la Terre, soit approximativement 27 jours.Ainsi, elle présente toujours le même hémisphère à la Terre.Les éclipses solaires se produisent lorsque la lune passe entre la Terre et le soleil, et que les trois astres sont parfaitement alignés.Malgré de nombreuses missions spatiales, aucune trace de vie n’a été trouvée sur la Lune…mais elle pourrait bien être colonisée par l’homme dans le futur. La gravité y est très faible – un sixième de celle de la Terre – c’est pourquoi les astronautes semblent rebondir à la surface.Source: NASA