Science (from the Latin word scientia, meaning "knowledge&quot) is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3500 to 3000 BCE.
Keep up with what's going on in the natural world and universe.
  • Outer space holds endless possibilities
    The Standard

    Outer space holds endless possibilities

    XN Iraki 21st Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT +0300 We need to revive some traditions like showing visitors your old photo albums. We loved that as undergraduates, which gave one a glimpse into one's past and personality. Instagram is more about your present only.  Recently I was going through my old photos which I have never had time to digitise. One photo caught my attention, taken on the penultimate year to my graduation. Standing next to a group of my classmates and I was a mzungu, taller and more confident than all of us. His name was Charles Duke. Why would the photo matter now?  Duke was no ordinary mzungu. Eighty-three years old now, he was one of the 12 astronauts who walked on the moon. He was

  • The Economic Times

    Chandrayaan-2 rover-lander tested on 'moon surface' created with Salem soil

    The Indian space agency has done some hard work on the ground so that its moon lander -- Vikram -- can soft-land safely and rover -- Pragyaan -- can move around, said a senior retired official. "The surface of the earth and that of the moon are entirely different. So we had to create an artificial moon surface and test our rover and lander," M. Annadurai, who retired as Director, U.R. Rao Satellite Centre (URSC), formerly ISRO Satellite Centre told IANS. The moon's surface is covered with craters, rocks and dust and its soil is of different texture as compared to earths. Annadurai said the legs of lander and wheels of the rover had to be tested before their flight. While moon light dinners are

  • China Wants to Turn Garbage Into Rocket Fuel
    The National Interest

    China Wants to Turn Garbage Into Rocket Fuel

    To fuel high-tech missiles and aircraft, Chinese scientists want to use low-tech ingredients: garbage.Agricultural biowaste can be converted into fuel for hypersonic missiles and aircraft, according to scientists at the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics. Hypersonic platforms—which travel at Mach 5 or greater—require high-energy military fuels like JP-10 to achieve those speeds.“Using agricultural and forestry residues including bran, chaff and mill dust, Professor Zhang Tao, Li Ning and colleagues discovered new chemical processes that can turn the waste to JP-10 fuel on a large scale with unprecedented efficiency,” according to the South China Morning Post.“The existing JP-10 super-fuel for military aircraft has numerous advantages including high energy density, good thermal stability and low freezing point, but it costs more than $7,000 per ton -- nearly 10 times as much as ordinary jet fuel for commercial aircraft.”In a paper in a German science journal, the Chinese researchers predicted the cost of the bio-fuel could be as low as $2,547 per ton.Making JP-10 from crude oil is like “processing diamonds out of dirt,” says one biofuels Web site. But bio-JP-10 can be produced in a process that requires only four to six steps, researchers said. Combined with existing biomass conversion techniques, a bio-JP-10 can be created at the same price as less powerful bio-fuels already in use.


    Chandrayaan-2 mission launch rehearsal completed, says ISRO

    New Delhi, July 21: The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) said that the launch rehearsal of the Chandrayaan-2 mission has been completed and the performance was normal. Chandrayaan-2 was scheduled to be launched on July 15 but the launch was aborted 56 minutes and 24 seconds before lift-off at 1.55 am following a technical problem in its most powerful rocket GSLV-Mk-III, dubbed 'Baahubali'. The launch has now been rescheduled for launch on July 22. "Launch rehearsal of GSLVMkIII-M1 / Chandrayaan2 mission completed, performance normal ISRO," tweeted ISRO. Earlier in the day, former Isro Chairman AS Kiran Kumar said that the Chandrayaan-2 mission is ready to be launched on July 22. Chandrayaan-2,

  • A sharper focus: New computational technique resolves compressed X-ray data
    Technology Org

    A sharper focus: New computational technique resolves compressed X-ray data

    Argonne develops novel method to more clearly see complex materials physics in difficult-to-access environments. With the right tools, scientists can have Superman-like X-ray vision that reveals hidden features buried within objects — but it's highly complicated. The Advanced Photon Source (APS), an Office of Science User Facility at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, gives scientists access to highly penetrating X-rays that can illuminate — at the atomic level — materials contained deep within other structures. The next phase for the APS, the APS Upgrade, transforms today's APS into a world-leading, storage-ring based, high-energy X-ray light source that equips scientists with a vastly more powerful tool for investigating and improving the materials and chemical processes that impact nearly every aspect of our lives.


    Space Spinoffs: The Technology To Reach The Moon Was Put To Use Back On Earth

    The Apollo program was gigantic. The U.S. government spent roughly $26 billion (about $260 billion in today's dollars, according to one estimate) between 1960 and 1972 to hire contractors and subcontractors who employed hundreds of thousands of people to create and improve on technology that led us to the moon and back. While some of that tech has stayed within the space industry, a lot of it has trickled down to the public. There's a huge list of the stuff. NASA has an entire department dedicated to cataloging it all. Sometimes separating myth from reality isn't easy. These six, however, are bona fide space program spinoffs. Freeze-dried food Beef pot roast, lobster bisque, peach ambrosia –

  • Harvard University has a bold new plan to make Mars livable for humans
    Digital Trends

    Harvard University has a bold new plan to make Mars livable for humans

    “Mars ain't the kind of place to raise your kid; in fact, it's cold as hell.” So sang Elton John in 1972's “Rocket Man,” one of the greatest (and only) pop hits ever to be written about the loneliness of space exploration. It's a valid point — and one which scientists have been seeking to address ever since. With everyone from Elon Musk to the good folks at NASA talking about the creation of a Mars colony, finding some way to make the Red Planet habitable has become a top priority. And Harvard University scientists think they may have found a way to do it. The newly proposed approach comes shortly after what appeared to be the end of the dream for terraforming Mars. Terraforming describes the


    American pocket-sized shark a new, glowing species

    And the mysterious pouches that it's named for, up near its front fins, squirt little glowing clouds into the ocean, scientists said, The Associated Press reported. Researchers have named the species the American pocket shark, or Mollisquama mississippiensis. Like the only other pocket shark known to science — a 400-millimeter adult female found in the Pacific Ocean off Peru — this 142mm newborn male fished out of the Gulf has a pouch, or glands, next to each front fin. The muscular glands are lined with pigment-covered fluorescent projections, indicating they squirt luminous liquid, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ichthyologist Mark Grace and his collaborators wrote in the journal Zootaxa.


    Where you grew up, what you ate; your bones record your life

    Stable isotope analysis, the study of the nuances of elements in archaeological materials, can unlock all sorts of secrets about climate, diet, and the geographical origins of bones and other materials, National Geographic reported. Stable isotopic analysis looks at the isotopes — atoms with extra or missing neutrons — of different elements. Unlike unstable isotopes such as carbon-14, which degrades over time, stable isotopes never decay. There are over 250 known stable isotopes, and 80 of the periodic table's first 82 elements have them. Both organic and inorganic compounds contain these isotopes, and their ratios relative to one another act like a signature. Solving ancient mysteries In the

  • Can we blame procrastination on our genes?
    Medical News Today

    Can we blame procrastination on our genes?

    A new study explores the genetic roots of procrastination. Previous research has associated both biological and psychological factors with procrastination. The results of a 2018 study showed that people with a tendency to procrastinate had a bigger amygdala — the section of the brain that processes emotions. The same research team has now studied whether there is an association between the trait and genetics. After examining identical and fraternal twins, the authors of a previous study, which featured in Psychological Science, concluded that 46% of the tendency to procrastinate might be down to genes. However, researchers still do not know the specific genetic difference that could result in

  • Washington Monument is transformed into stunning tribute to Apollo 11
    Daily Mail

    Washington Monument is transformed into stunning tribute to Apollo 11

    The Washington Monument has been transformed into a stunning tribute to the first moon landing through a dazzling series of projections. Crowds packed the National Mall to watch the 17-minute show, which was projected three times each on Friday and Saturday, marking the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission. Cheers rose from the crowd as the Saturn V rocket was seen lifting off. The show also included various scenes of the stages separating, the moon landing, and splash-down as the hero astronauts returned to Earth. 'I thought it was amazing. It brought back so many memories,' Shawn McCahey, who was visiting from Chicago, told WTOP-FM of the show.  'I was 13 when this happened, and I still

  • Chandrayaan 2 launch vehicle's rehearsal completed: ISRO
    Hindustan Times

    Chandrayaan 2 launch vehicle's rehearsal completed: ISRO

    ISRO said Saturday it has completed the launch rehearsal of GSLV Mark III-M1, the launch vehicle of Chandrayaan 2, and its performance is normal. After aborting the second Indian mission to Moon on July 15, an hour before the take off, ISRO has said it would go ahead with the mission on July 21. “Launch rehearsal of #GSLVMkIII-M1 / #Chandrayaan2 mission completed, performance normal #ISRO,” he said. The launch of Chandrayaan 2, aimed at landing a rover on the unexplored Lunar South Pole, was aborted early on July 15 due to a “technical snag” in the rocket. The snag had occurred when the liquid propellant was being loaded into the rocket's indigenous cryogenic upper-stage engine. Veteran scientists

  • The First Moon Landing Wasn't Just a Space Event
    Psychology Today

    The First Moon Landing Wasn't Just a Space Event

    In the summer of 1969 I had just graduated from high school. Distressed by my TWA pilot father's worsening alcoholism, I'd been sent away to live with my Uncle Paul, Joe's older—and more stable—brother. In this excerpt from my memoir, “American Icarus: A Memoir of Father and Country,” I recount my memory of that historic moment, how it affected me personally—and how it upended the once-secure belief systems of those around me. But at home I wore an expression of brooding anger—much like my mother. Looking back, I see that I followed in her emotional footsteps, mirroring her fury against my father. She, in turn, accused Joe of pushing me to the brink of a breakdown with his drinking. Due to my

  • Standoff on Hawaii mountain is about more than a telescope
    Tampa Bay Times

    Standoff on Hawaii mountain is about more than a telescope

    HONOLULU (AP) � Protesters fighting the construction of a giant telescope on a mountain some Native Hawaiians consider sacred say the standoff is about more than the project. Longtime Native Hawaiian activist Walter Ritte says he's opposing the telescope for the same reasons he fought military bombing practice on a small island decades ago. Ritte and other activists say they're protecting Hawaii's highest peak, called Mauna Kea, because of other critical issues like land and water rights, development and sovereignty. A telescope protest leader says a cultural renaissance is fueling a new generation of Hawaiian activists. Kaho'okahi Kanuha says the resurgence in cultural pride has allowed younger

  • NBC Dallas Fort Worth

    Extreme Temperatures on Earth and on the Moon

    Iconic Texan Ross Perot Remembered Tuesday