Photos show how the royals have mourned in modern history over the years
Members of the British royal family are mourning the loss of Queen Elizabeth II, who died on September 8.
Although traditionally stoic, the royal family has publicly mourned relatives throughout modern history.
Prince William and Prince Harry walked behind Princess Diana's coffin during her funeral in 1997.
Queen Victoria was so distraught by Prince Albert's unexpected death in 1861 that she mourned him by wearing black for four decades.
Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were married on February 10, 1840, but their marriage was cut short when he died of typhoid on December 14, 1861 – nine months after her mother, Princess Marie Louise Victoire died.
According to the British Royal Family's website, Queen Victoria was "deeply attached" to Prince Albert, leading her to fall into a depression following his death.
As a result, she wore black for the rest of her life before she passed in January 1901, according to The Metropolitan Museum.
Queen Victoria set a precedent by doing so, making it a social norm to wear black while grieving for a loved one or monarch.
A rare ritual called Vigil of the Princes first occurred at King George V's funeral in 1936.
Vigil of the Princes refers to when members of the British royal family – typically male – "stand guard" around a relative's coffin while it lies in state.
The first time this royal tradition took place was in 1936 with the death of King George V, the first monarch of the House of Windsor.
The Independent reported that King George V's four sons – King Edward III, Prince Albert, Prince Henry, and Prince George – stood guard in full military uniforms for 15 minutes inside Westminster Abbey. The vigil has occurred three times in history thus far.
Members of the royal family broke protocol by greeting mourners and admiring tributes following Princess Diana's death in 1997.
Princess Diana died in a car crash while fleeing from paparazzi on August 31, 1997, and the unexpected death sent shockwaves across the United Kingdom.
Although Queen Elizabeth II initially kept Diana's sons in Scotland at Balmoral Castle to avoid the media frenzy, Princes William and Harry later returned to London to participate in the funeral.
However, prior to their departure, King Charles, William, and Harry acknowledged the mourners and bouquets left outside Balmoral before arriving in London.
The Washington Post noted that Queen Elizabeth II was initially criticized for the royal family's response to Princess Diana's death by not publicly acknowledging it for days while remaining in Scotland.
Public perception of the royals was waning, but Queen Elizabeth chose to ignore protocol when she returned to London on September 5, 1997, one day before the funeral.
Instead of entering Buckingham Palace after arriving from Balmoral, she and Prince Philip exited their vehicle at the front gate to speak with mourners and publicly admire the floral tributes.
On the same day, King Charles and his sons looked at Princess Diana's tributes placed outside of Kensington Palace.
Queen Elizabeth paid homage to Princess Diana with two unprecedented gestures.
In response to the criticism she faced over the royal family's initial silence following Diana's death, the Queen made a televised appearance on September 5, 1997, according to ABC News.
"I want to pay tribute to Diana myself," the Queen said from Buckingham Palace. "She was an exceptional and gifted human being. In good times and bad, she never lost her capacity to smile and laugh, nor to inspire others with her warmth and kindness. I admired and respected her — for her energy and commitment to others, and especially for her devotion to her two boys."
The next day during the funeral, Queen Elizabeth solemnly bowed her head as Diana's casket proceeded to Westminster Abbey, per National Geographic.
In a September 6 interview with People's Simon Perry, photographer Mark Stewart described his observation of the historic moment.
"I pushed my way through the crowd, which was about 20 deep, and luckily the BBC had left a ladder against a tree. I managed to climb the ladder and I have the only shot of the Queen bowing her head at the coffin as it goes past," he said. "It showed the Queen . . . The best of the Queen, really."
Prince William and Prince Harry walked behind Princess Diana's coffin during her funeral.
Prince William and Prince Harry, then ages 15 and 12, walked behind Princess Diana's coffin as it was escorted to Westminster Abbey.
They were accompanied by King Charles III, Prince Philip, and Earl Charles Spencer, Diana's younger brother.
Queen Elizabeth's only daughter, Princess Anne, told ITV's Chris Ship in 2021 that Prince William and Prince Harry's decision to participate was in part due to Prince Philip.
"I seem to remember him saying that, in fact, it was a question of 'if you'll do it, I'll do it,'" Anne told Ship. "That was him as a grandfather saying, 'If that's what you want to do and if you want me to be there, I'll be there.'"
Queen Elizabeth's mother, The Queen Mother, is the second person in British history to receive a Vigil of the Princes.
The British Royal Family's website notes that Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother died peacefully in her sleep in March 2002.
While her body lay in state at Westminster Hall, photos show King Charles III, Prince Andrew, Prince Edward, and Viscount Linley performing the Vigil of the Princes by standing guard on each side.
It marked the second time members of the royal family participated in the Vigil of the Princes.
Queen Elizabeth sat alone during her husband's funeral due to COVID-19 safety protocols.
Following the Duke of Edinburgh's death on April 9, 2021, a funeral was held at St. George's Chapel, where the Queen was pictured sitting alone. She was likely separated due to the country's COVID-19 safety protocols at the time.
CNN reported that although other royal members like Prince Harry and Meghan Markle were in attendance, the Queen and Prince Philip had remained in a bubble with members of their household before the funeral. Hence, she wasn't able to join her relatives.
Following tradition, the Queen wore all black for the somber occasion.
King Charles III shook hands with mourners outside Buckingham Palace one day after Queen Elizabeth's death.
Queen Elizabeth died on September 8 at Balmoral Castle at the age of 96. She was the longest-serving monarch in British history, ruling for 70 years.
Her death launched a period of collective mourning in the UK and across the globe.
The day following Queen Elizabeth's death, King Charles III arrived from Balmoral Castle, where the royal family gathered in the monarch's final moments, to greet crowds of mourners outside of Buckingham Palace.
Insider's Rebecca Cohen reported that Charles III was welcomed warmly by onlookers who erupted into cheers during his arrival.
In his first televised speech as king, Charles paid homage to his mother and her legacy.
"Queen Elizabeth's was a life well lived, a promise with destiny kept and she is mourned most deeply in her passing," Charles III, said. "That promise of life-long service I renew to you all today.
Princes William, Prince Harry, and their wives, Kate Middleton and Meghan Markle, respectively, visited tributes during a moment of solidarity.
Prince Harry and Meghan Markle accompanied Prince William and Kate Middleton outside of Windsor Castle on Saturday to greet mourners who were gathered outside of the gates, Insider's Gabi Stevenson reports.
The surprising joint appearance marked a moment of solidarity between the group who were once regarded as "The Fab Four" prior to Harry and Meghan's departure as senior royals in 2020.
According to Entertainment Tonight, William reached out to Harry an hour prior to the promenade and requested the couple's accompaniment.
Princess Anne, the Queen's only daughter, paid homage to Queen Elizabeth by partaking in a six-hour car ride following her mother's coffin.
Insider's Lauren Edmonds reported that Princess Anne partook in a six-hour journey behind her mother's coffin on Sunday, following the hearse from Balmoral Castle to Edinburgh.
The trip usually takes two-and-a-half hours but was extended due to the multiple stops the hearse made along the way.
Anne was accompanied by her husband, Vice Admiral Sir Timothy Laurence, along the journey across the Scottish countryside before the Queen's coffin was received at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh.
Princess Anne curtsied as her mother's coffin arrived in Edinburgh.
After the long journey, Princess Anne stood outside the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh the same day where she welcomed the arrival of her mother's coffin along with other members of the royal family.
As the coffin passed Anne curtsied, which is a gesture that women normally reserve for the Queen upon first greeting.
The moment marked Anne's deep reverence for her late mother.
King Charles and his siblings, Prince Anne, Prince Edward, and Prince Andrew follow behind Queen Elizabeth's coffin in Edinburgh.
King Charles and his siblings led a procession along the Royal Mile on Tuesday, which runs between the Palace of Holyroodhouse and St Giles' Cathedral, Insider reported.
Thousands gathered along the street to pay their respects prior to a Service of Thanksgiving at St. Giles'.
That same day Queen Elizabeth's four children, King Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew, and Prince Edward took part in the Vigil of the Princes.
During a Service of Thanksgiving at St. Giles' Cathedral in Edinburgh, Queen Elizabeth's four children took part in the Vigil of the Princes.
The group stood guard in front of their mother's coffin for around 10 minutes.
During the ceremony, Princess Anne made history as the first woman to participate in the tradition, marking the third time that the vigil took place.
King Charles donned a traditional Scottish kilt, while his siblings Anne and Edward wore military dress. Andrew did not wear military attire because he is not a working member of the royal family and was stripped of his royal patronages and titles following a sexual assault lawsuit that was filed against him in August 2021.
After the service, the Queen's body was flown to London, embarking upon the journey to her final resting place.
Members of the royal family followed Queen Elizabeth's coffin during a procession from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Hall.
During a procession from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Hall Wednesday, Prince Harry, Prince William, King Charles, and his siblings — Princess Anne, Prince Edward, and Prince Andrew — walked behind the Queen's hearse, where she will lie in state until her funeral on Monday.
The occasion marked the first time Harry walked alongside his brother and father after maintaining a noticeable distance during the funeral procession for Prince Philip in 2021.
Harry donned a morning suit for the occasion and confirmed to Insider via a statement from his representative that he would not wear traditional military attire during events tied to the Queen's funeral.
Meghan Markle curtsied in front of the Queen's coffin during a ceremony in London.
Meghan Markle was captured curtsying at the Queen's coffin during a service at Westminster Hall following the Queen's procession on Wednesday.
King Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew, and Prince Edward stood guard around Queen Elizabeth's coffin for the last time before the late monarch's funeral.
After partaking in the Vigil of the Princes at St. Giles' Cathedral in Edinburgh, King Charles, and his siblings stood guard around their mother's remains for the final time on Friday at Westminster Hall.
The royals stood for 10 minutes with bowed heads out of respect for their mother and the late monarch.
Most notably, Prince Andrew wore military regalia for the occasion along with Charles, Anne, and Edward, after donning a morning suit for previous ceremonies in honor of the Queen.
King Charles and Prince William greeted onlookers who waited in line for hours to pay their respects to Queen Elizabeth.
On Friday afternoon Charles and William shook hands with royal fans who waited in line, some for over 12 hours, to view the Queen's coffin inside of Westminster Hall.
Queen Elizabeth's grandchildren honored her with a powerful vigil at Westminster Hall.
During a powerful moment of reverence, Queen Elizabeth's eight grandchildren held a silent vigil on Saturday evening at Westminster Hall.
Prince William, and Prince Harry, joined their cousins Peter Phillips, Zara Tindall, Princess Beatrice, Princess Eugenie, Lady Louise, and Viscount Severn, as they stood guard around the coffin for 15 minutes.
Harry was granted permission to wear his military dress after King Charles III made a reverse decision.
Prior to Friday, Harry's spokesperson confirmed in a statement to Insider that the duke would wear a morning suit during the Queen's funeral and subsequent ceremonies.
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