Planned obsolescence

SHOTLIST SOURCE: AFP VIDEOGRAPHICS IMAGES: 01:53 -Image of a washing machine working normally.-The washing machine breaks down, crack appears and the front section falls off.- Pan across a desk showing a photo of the man who invented the process, then an image of a 1930s telephone.- Pan down to black and white notes on a desk showing a drawing of now planned obsolescence works.- Drawings are animated, and coloured showing washing machines manufactured before being thrown away.- Production line. Animated image of boxes leaving a factory.- Image of washing machines being thrown away one by one- Trucks with dollar signs leave the factory.- Image of a building with the word 'store' on it.- Washing machines on the production line.- man sits at his desk, unsuccessfully tries to introduce a disc.- Low shot and side shot of the manoeuvre.- Shot from below showing the computer screen, flickering and going out, user in despair.- Split screen, Man manipulating a smartphone, smartpnone interface.- Smartphone breaks down.- Track across piles of old and abandoned smartphones.- Backtrack shot showing a pile of redundant phones.- Cut to a robot implanting smartphone screens on a production line.- Planisphere. - Pan across a landscape wasteland of old broken machines.- Bulldozer piles up old abandonesd machines, pan across an industrial landscape.- Return to image of a working washing machine, magnifying glass passes across it.- Zoom in to Made in France label. SCRIPT EN Planned obsolescence is not a new concept. The phrase was coined in the United States in 1932, in the midst of an economic crisis. Property developer Bernard London imagined a legally imposed obsolescence on consumer goods in order to stimulate industry and growth.Planned obsolescence is a strategy by manufacturers of household appliances, computers and electronics to limit the life span of their products, or make repairs impossible, so that consumers are encouraged to replace items frequently. There is also talk of software obsolescence, whereby a computer becomes unusable because it is no longer compatible with new software. Aesthetic obsolescence is where consumers change their smartphone for example, because an improved version appears on the market. 7 billion smartphones have been sold worldwide since 2007, and this hasn’t been without ramifications.In particular, screen manufacturing, which accounts for 80% of the environmental impact, causes depletion of resources (copper, nickel, gold or lithium), damage to biodiversity due to toxic discharges and greenhouse gas emissions.And at the end of its useful life, what should be done with the 44.7 million tonnes of electronic and electrical waste generated around the world in 2016?Only 20% of this waste is recycled, the rest either vanishes into the environment, is stored in landfills, often in Africa, or incinerated.Although it is difficult to prove planned obsolescence as an industrial strategy, France is a world leader, having made it an offence under the law since 2015. SOURCE: UN, ADEME SCRIPT FR L’obsolescence dite « programmée » : un concept loin d’être nouveau.Le terme voit le jour aux Etats-Unis en 1932, en pleine crise économique : le promoteur immobilier Bernard London imagine une obsolescence légalement imposée afin de stimuler l’industrie et la croissance.L’obsolescence programmée est donc la démarche d’un fabriquant de produit électro-ménager, informatique ou électronique limitant volontairement la durée de vie de son produit, ou en rendant la réparation impossible dans le but d’en favoriser la fréquence de remplacement. On parle aussi d’obsolescence logicielle : un ordinateur devient inutilisable car il n’est plus compatible avec les nouveaux logiciels ; Ou d’obsolescence esthétique : je change mon smartphone car une version améliorée apparait sur le marché. 7 milliards de smartphones ont été vendus dans le monde depuis 2007, ce qui n’est pas sans conséquence…. Notamment la fabrication des écrans, responsable à 80% de l’impact environnemental : appauvrissement des ressources (en cuivre, nickel, or ou lithium), atteintes à la biodiversité dues au rejets toxiques et émissions de gaz à effet de serre.En fin de vie, que faire des 44,7 millions de tonnes de déchets électroniques et électriques produits en 2016 à travers le monde ?Seuls 20% de ces déchets sont recyclés, le reste s’évapore dans la nature, est stocké dans des décharges, souvent en en Afrique, ou est incinéré. Même s’il est difficile de prouver l’obsolescence programmée en tant que stratégie industrielle, la France fait figure d’exception dans le monde ; depuis 2015, elle en a fait un délit puni par la loi. SOURCE : ONU, ADEME