About 50 young people have clashed with riot police in Edinburgh with fireworks and petrol bombs being thrown directly at officers.
Video footage from the Niddrie area of the city showed officers in riot gear standing in a line while youths threw explosives at their feet.
Police Scotland also responded to disturbances in Glasgow and Dundee.
The force said eight officers suffered minor injuries on a night of "unprecedented levels of violence".
Meanwhile, the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service (SFRS) said nine crews were attacked during an eight-hour period across the country.
In Niddrie, police were called to the Hay Avenue area at 16:40 GMT after reports of "antisocial use of fireworks".
Images posted on social media showed bystanders watching the violence.
The videos showed the police bombarded with explosives while teenagers gathered on a green, with some filming it.
About 50 youths within a larger group of youths and adults were responsible for directing fireworks at vehicles and buildings before their behaviour escalated when officers arrived, the police said.
A statement said officers were pursuing a number of individuals who they believe were providing youths with fireworks and petrol bombs to target police in the Niddrie area.
The force said while only a small number of arrests had been made on the night, as a result of the "significant challenges" officers faced, substantial evidence had been gathered and it was anticipated further arrests would take place in the coming days.
It added two police vehicles were damaged in Dundee after being struck with bricks while in Glasgow police received a report of two groups of youths throwing fireworks at one another.
Eight officers sustained minor injuries in Edinburgh and Glasgow.
Assistant Chief Constable Tim Mairs, gold commander of Operation Moonbeam, said a minority of individuals had been responsible for "unacceptable and frankly, disgusting level of disorder that left communities alarmed and police officers injured".
He said the violent nature of the disorder in Niddrie was "extremely concerning" - "not least because because it is believed young people were being actively encouraged and co-ordinated by adults to target officers while they carried out their duties".
City of Edinburgh Council leader Cammy Day said he was "appalled" by the scenes in Niddrie.
He said: "This reckless behaviour endangers lives and like the majority of people in the community I share in their dismay and upset at this disgraceful behaviour."
Scottish Conservative justice spokesman Russell Findlay said: "Such attacks on police officers are cowardly, reckless and dangerous. Police Scotland need sufficient resources to tackle these thugs."
In 2018, Police Scotland set up Operation Moonbeam to tackle Bonfire Night disorder.
Last year, a police vehicle was hit by a Molotov cocktail in Niddrie, and motorbike gangs raced through the area while fireworks were lobbed at the ground.
On Halloween last week, police were called to the Kirkton area of Dundee after youths set off fireworks and lit an illegal bonfire.