The protest, held at the site of the incident, was organized by a number of local activist groups, including the Minneapolis NAACP, Communities Against Police Brutality, and Black Lives Matter Twin Cities.
A video of the Monday evening incident showed an officer pressing his knee into the neck of the man who was later identified as George Floyd, according to Mayor Jacob Frey.
A series of police-involved shootings and killings of black men in recent years have triggered mass protests across the country and led to the formation of the Black Lives Matter movement, which has demanded an end to an unjustified use of lethal force in minority communities.
Four Minneapolis police officers were fired on Tuesday, a day after a bystander's cell phone video captured one of them kneeling on the neck of an unarmed black man who later died in a hospital, the city's mayor said.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is investigating the death, the Minneapolis Police Department said in a statement on Tuesday.