SHOTLIST SOURCES: AFP VIDEOGRAPHICS, ESA UPDATED MARCH 2018 IMAGES: 01:54-A cloud of space debris orbiting the Earth ("ESA")Zoom out from the ground seen from space-A satellite passes across the screen-Collision between a tool and another spacecraft-A cloud of debris flies into space-In this cloud, we see spacecraft parts, a wrench-Another collision between an object and a satellite-Collision chain reaction-The Earth seen from space-The ISS changes course-A satellite rotates and collides with debris (ESA)-A telecommunication equipment in a field-A computer screen-Zoom on a man's mobile phone in the streetin space, a station explodes after a collision-Earth view with a satellite in the foreground-A vehicle passes through space ("ESA") SCRIPT EN: Millions of pieces of man-made debris are currently orbiting the earth. This huge cloud of space junk is suspended between 800 and 2,000 kilometers above us.Since space exploration began in 1957, fragments from more than 5,000 space launches and 290 orbital explosions have been accumulating. Old rockets, satellites, tools lost by astronauts and even flecks of paint pose a serious threat to future space exploration, particularly manned flights and stations. Sensors carried on space vehicles only tend to detect micro-debris but damage from a collision can be serious due to the very fast orbital speed of this debris, travelling at some 28,000 kilometers an hour.The International Space Station for example has had to perform avoidance manoeuvres more than a dozen times.There is also the risk of debris slamming into the hundreds of earth observation and telecommunication satellites which orbit the earth. Billions of dollars’ worth of weather monitoring equipment, global navigation and communications systems are at risk. The big fear is of a collision occurring and triggering a chain reaction, known as the Kessler syndrome.Thousands of pieces of debris measuring more than 10 centimeters and sometimes as big as a bus, are currently being tracked and followed from earth by radars and telescopes.Space agencies have guidelines in place on how to deal with potential collision threats but as yet, no viable method exists for debris removal.The 4 billion euro EU-funded STARDUST project – involving NASA and universities around the world – aims to tackle the threat of both space junk and asteroids by developing strategies to deflect or remove space debris. Source : ESA, NASA, European Commission SCRIPT FR: Des millions de débris d'origine humaine tournent autour de la Terre, formant un immense nuage de déchets entre 800 et 2 000 kilomètres d’altitude.Depuis le début de la conquête spatiale en 1957, on recense plus de 5000 lancements et plus de 290 explosions en orbite.Fusées anciennes, satellites, outils perdus par les astronautes (et même éclats de peinture) représentent une menace pour l'exploration spatiale future.Les capteurs embarqués dans les engins spatiaux détectent ces micro-débris, mais les dégâts causés en cas de collision peuvent être graves en raison de leur vitesse très élevée, environ 28 000 km/h.La Station spatiale internationale, par exemple, a dû effectuer plus d'une douzaine de manœuvres d'évitement. Autre risque : des collisions avec les centaines de satellites d'observation et de télécommunications qui tournent autour de la Terre.Des milliards de dollars d'équipement de veille météorologique, de systèmes de navigation et de communications sont ainsi menacés. Les scientifiques redoutent qu’une collision déclenche une réaction en chaîne , connue sous le nom de syndrome de Kessler.Des milliers de débris mesurant de 10 centimètres jusqu’à la taille d’un autobus, sont actuellement suivis depuis la terre par des radars et des télescopes.Les agences spatiales ont mis en place des directives sur la façon de faire face aux risques de collision, mais aucune méthode viable n'existe encore pour la récupération des débris.Le projet STARDUST, financé à hauteur de 4 milliards d'euros par l'UE et auquel participent la NASA et des universités du monde entier, vise à lutter contre cette menace des débris spatiaux et des astéroïdes en mettant au point des stratégies pour dévier ou éliminer les débris spatiaux. Source : ESA, NASA, Commission Européenne
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