Mr Mastriano filed his lawsuit in federal court in Washington and named the committee, its members, and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi as defendants, according to Politico.
In court papers, the state senator asked a judge to declare that the committee cannot order him to sit for the deposition and asks for it to pay his legal fees.
Mr Mastriano was subpoenaed by the committee for documents and testimony in February and produced evidence in May. He also told the committee that he would voluntarily sit for the interview.
But when the committee insisted that the deposition be videotaped, Mr Mastriano asked that he be allowed to make his own recording of it, which court papers say was rejected.
The committee has used a string of clips from the depositions during their live televised hearings.
Mr Mastriano appeared on a video conference call with the committee earlier this month but left before answering any questions, according to the lawsuit.