Tsunami models underestimated Tonga eruption shockwave

Forecasting models and warning systems, designed primarily to assess earthquake-triggered waves, did not account for the boosting effects of the shockwave. It was a critical flaw in these systems, scientists said, leaving them unable to predict exactly when the waves would hit land.

Satellite images from the University of Massachusetts Lowell showed the scale of the massive shockwave from the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai volcano eruption, which triggered a tsunami that destroyed villages and resorts and knocked out communications for the South Pacific nation of about 105,000 people. Three people have been reported killed.

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