The warship, USS Arlington, is set to join the USS Abraham Lincoln group in the Gulf at a time of escalating tensions between Tehran and the Donald Trump administration.
The Patriot system is able to counter ballistic missiles, cruise missiles and aircrafts.
The system is currently deployed in Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates.
Iran has dismissed the tensions and has described the deployment as “psychological warfare”.
The Pentagon announced the move of the defence missile system amid concerns that Tehran could be planning an attack on US forces or interests in the region.
US national security adviser John Bolton announced the warship was moving to the region due to “troubling and escalatory indications and warnings”.
The Pentagon wrote in a statement: “The Department of Defense continues to closely monitor the activities of the Iranian regime, their military and proxies. Due to operational security, we will not discuss timelines or location of forces.
“The United States does not seek conflict with Iran, but we are postured and ready to defend U.S. forces and interests in the region.”
Washington has recently tightened sanctions on Iran in a bid to reduce Tehran’s crude exports to zero.