The group, who were accompanied by a State Department official, pried open a rear door and went inside without responding to questions from reporters.
Chinese officials were ordered to leave by 4pm on Friday amid escalating tensions between Beijing and the Trump administration, which said the consulate had been "a hub of spying and intellectual property theft".
The officers did not reveal to reporters where they were from, but one member of the group appeared to be Cliff Seagroves, the State Department's top official for foreign missions.
A State Department spokesperson declined to answer questions about Mr Seagroves or the group's activity at the consulate.
After the men went inside, two uniformed members of the State Department's Bureau of Diplomatic Security arrived to guard the door. They did not respond to questions.
The Chinese embassy in Washington did not respond to a request for comment.
Consulate staff had exited the Houston building shortly after 4pm and left in vehicles before the door was forced open, according to a witness.
Following Washington's announcement of the Chinese consulate's closure, Beijing in a tit-for-tat response ordered the shutting down of the US consulate in the city of Chengdu.
On Saturday, a consulate emblem inside the Chengdu compound was taken down and staff could be seen moving about. Three removal vans later entered the compound.
Police gathered outside and closed off the street to traffic.
A steady stream of people walked along the street opposite the entrance throughout the day, many stopping to take photos or videos before police moved them on.
Plain clothes officers detained a man who tried to hold up a sign. It was not clear what the sign said.
The US consulate was given 72 hours to close, or until 10am on Monday, the editor of China's Global Times tabloid said on Twitter.
Relations between Washington and Beijing have deteriorated this year to what experts say is their lowest level in decades over issues ranging from trade and technology to the novel coronavirus, China's territorial claims in the South China Sea and its clampdown on Hong Kong.
Additional reporting by Reuters